The post The Double Slit Experiment in Spacetime. appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>However, one can understand it in terms of the classical properties of wave mechanics and the spacetime universe defined by Einstein.
The double slit experiment is made up of a coherent source of photons illuminating a screen after passing through a thin plate with two parallel slits cut in it. Their wave properties cause them to interfere after passing through both slits, creating an interference pattern of bright and dark bands on the screen. However, at the screen, the light is always found to be absorbed as discrete particles, called photons.
When only one slit is open, the pattern on the screen is a diffraction pattern however, when both slits are open, the pattern is similar but with much more detailed. These facts were elucidated by Thomas Young in a paper entitled “Experiments and Calculations Relative to Physical Optics,” published in 1803 wrote “To a very high degree of success, these results could be explained by the method of Huygens–Fresnel principle that is based on the hypothesis that light consists of waves propagated through some medium.
However, discovery of the photoelectric effect made it necessary to go beyond classical physics and take the quantum nature of light into account.
It is a widespread misunderstanding that, when the two slits are open but a detector is added to determine which one a photon has passed through, the interference pattern no longer forms and it yields two simple patterns, one from each slit, without interference.
This is because there are ways to determine which slit it passed through in which the interference pattern will be changed but not be completely wiped out. For instance, by placing an atom at the position of each slit and monitoring whether one of these atoms is influenced by photon passing through it the interference pattern will be changed but not be completely wiped out.
But the most baffling part of this experiment comes when only one photon at a time impacts a barrier with two opened slits because an interference pattern forms which is similar to what it was when multiple photons were impacting the barrier. This is a clear implication the particle called a photon has a wave component, which simultaneously passes through both slits and interferes with itself. (The experiment works with electrons, atoms, and even some molecules too.)”
Many believe the importance of this experiment is that it demonstrates both the duality of the wave and particle properties of photons and the concepts of superposition and quantum interference.
Yet, one can understand this experiment in terms of the classical properties of waves and Relativity because they tell us an electromagnetic wave moves continuously through spacetime unless it is prevented from doing so by someone observing or something interacting with it. This would result in its energy being confined in threedimensional space. The science of wave mechanics also tells us the threedimensional “walls” of this confinement will result in its energy being reflected back on itself thereby creating a resonant standing wave in threedimensional space. This would cause its energy to be concentrated at the point in space where a particle would be found. Additionally, wave mechanics also tells us the energy of a resonant system, such as a standing wave which this confinement would create can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency.
Additionally, it also tells us a particle would have an extended volume equal to the wavelength associated with its standing wave.
(Note the boundaries or “walls” of its confinement would be defined by its wave properties. If an electromagnetic wave is prevented from moving through space it will be reflected back on itself. However, that reflected wave still cannot move through space therefore it will be reflected back creating a standing wave. Putting it another way the wave itself defines its boundaries because if it cannot move though space it MUST STAND in place in the form of a standing wave.)
Putting it in the vernacular of Quantum Mechanics when an electromagnetic wave is prevented from moving through space either by being observed or encountering an object its “Collapses” to a form a standing wave that would define the quantized energy Quantum Mechanics associates with a particle.
It shows the reason why the interference pattern remains when one photon at a time is fired at the barrier with both slits open or “the most baffling part of this experiment” is because, as mentioned earlier it is made up of an electromagnetic wave, therefore it occupies an extended volume which is directly related to its wavelength.
This means a portion of its energy could simultaneously pass through both slits, if the diameter of its volume exceeds the separation of the slits and recombine on the other side to generate an interference pattern.
However, if its energy is prevented from moving through space by contacting the screen it will be confined to threedimensional space causing it to be concentrated in a standing wave that as mentioned earlier would define the energy of the photon that impacted the screen.
Additionally, because the energy of the standing wave which earlier was shown to define the quantum properties of a photon is dependent on its frequency the energy of the particle has when it contacts the screen must have the same energy. Therefore, where it appears on the screen will be determined by where the interference of the wave properties from each slit combine to produce enough energy to support the standing wave associated with its particle properties.
It also explains why the interference pattern disappears, in MOST cases when a detector is added to determine which slit a photon passes through is because the energy required to measure it causes the wavelength of the one being measured to change so that it will not have the same resonant characteristics as one that passed through the other slit. Therefore, the energy passing thought that slit will not be able to interact, in MOST cases with the energy passing through the other one and no interference pattern will form.
However, it also explains why, as was mentioned earlier “there are ways to determine which slit a photon’s energy passed through that will cause a change in the interference pattern but will not completely wipe it out.
The reason for this is if the energy passing through one of the two slits is altered by a relatively small amount compared to what it originally was, classical wave mechanics tells us it will be able to interact to form a slightly different resonant structure with a slightly different interference pattern on the other side than would be the case if no measurement was taken.
However, this also means one should be able to use the science of wave mechanics and the physical properties of spacetime to quantify the maximum amount of energy a measuring device can remove from the wave while passing through a slit that will permit the interference pattern although somewhat altered to be reestablished on the other side.
For example, if the above interpretation for the double slit experiment is correct one should be able to use the science of wave mechanics to calculate the energy required to cause specific shift in the interference and determine if it matches the energy taken out of the system by the detecting equipment.
This provides an experimental way of determining if the results of the Thompson’s double slit experiment are due to physical properties of spacetime or the quantum properties of the wave function because if the pattern disappears above that value and reappears below it would suggest the above explanation is valid. If not, it would suggest the quantum mechanical one is.
Einstein’s Explanation of the Unexplainable
The post The Double Slit Experiment in Spacetime. appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>The post Einstein on the internal structure of protons and neutrons appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>Einstein define a way to determine the energy associated with geometry of space that may be responsible for the internal structure of the protons and neutrons which can quantified
For example, he quantified how the relative motion of an object causes a change the orientation of the dimensional axis to change with respect to each other.
Yet there is another equally valid interpretation which is that change orientation of the dimensional axis is responsible for the energy or momentum of relativity motion. This gives a direct way to quantify how much energy is associated with changing the orientation of the dimensional axis from 90 degrees to something else.
However, this also give us a way quantizing the bonding energy of the quarks that define the interval structure of both protons and neutrons
For example, observations of hadrons such as protons and neutrons confirmed they are made up of distinct components called quarks of which there are six types, the UP/Down, Charm/Strange and Top/Bottom. The Up, Charm and Top have a fractional charge of 2/3. While the Down, Strange and Bottom have a fractional charge of 1/3. However, no one has been able to define their internal structure in terms of observations.
However, another property of quarks defined by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is their color charge which are red, green, and blue. It assumes each one is made up of three different colors of quarks red, blue and green and only the combinations of the colors that produce “white” can be found in a stable particle.
It will be shown the color charge of each represents orientation of three twodimensional plane (xy, yz, xz) of threedimensional space responsible of its charge.
For example, red would represent the xy plane green, the yz, and blue xz. The fact that threedimensional space contains only one of each explains why particle must be composed of one each color to be stable.
However, before we begin, we must first define how and why the color charge of a quark is related to the twodimensional planes mentioned earlier
As was shown in Article 12 (page 61) the alternating charge of an electromagnetic wave are the result of displacement in the twodimensional planes of space that it is moving on.
Briefly it showed the electric and magnetic components of an electromagnetic wave are the result of a spatial displacement in the twodimensional “surface” of threedimension space.
One can understand the mechanism responsible by using the analogy of how a wave on the twodimensional surface of water causes a point on that surface to become displaced or rise above or below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present.
The science of wave mechanics tells us a force would be developed by these displacements which would result in the elevated and depressed portions of the water moving towards or becoming “attracted” to each other and the surface of the water.
Similarly, an energy wave on the “surface” of the two spatial dimensions that are perpendicular to the axis of gravitational forces would cause a point on that “surface” to become displaced or rise above and below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present.
Therefore, classical wave mechanics, if extrapolated to the properties of two of the three spatial dimensions of our universe tell us a force will be developed by the differential displacements caused by an energy wave on it which will result in its elevated and depressed portions moving towards or become “attracted” to each other as the wave moves through space.
This would define the causality of the attractive electrical fields associated with an electromagnetic wave in terms of a force caused by the alternating displacements of a wave moving with respect to time on a “surface” of the two spatial dimensions which are perpendicular to the axis of gravitational forces.
However, it also provides a classical mechanism for understanding why similar electrical fields repel each other. This is because observations of waves show there is a direct relationship between the magnitude of a displacement in its “surface” to the magnitude of the force resisting that displacement.
Similarly, the magnitude of a displacement in a “surface” of the two spatial dimensions will be greater than that caused by a single one. Therefore, they will repel each other because the magnitude of the force resisting the displacement will be greater than it would be for a single one.
One can also derive the magnetic component of an electromagnetic wave in terms of the horizontal force developed along the axis that is perpendicular to the displacement caused by its peaks and troughs associated with the electric fields. This would be analogous to how the perpendicular displacement of a mountain generates a horizontal force on the surface of the earth, which pulls matter horizontally towards the apex of that displacement.
Even though the above explanation of how a charge is related to an alternating displacement in the “surface” of threedimensional space it also can explain a static one in terms of their relative positions in it
As was mentioned earlier Einstein define forces such as gravity in terms of the flexibility of the spatial dimensions.
However, one can derive the internal structure of protons and neutrons if one assumes orientation of the color charges of quarks are the result of the flexibility of the twodimensional planes which earlier were defined as being responsible for them.
This is because for a proton or neutron to be stable in threedimension space the orientation of the xy, yz, and xz dimensional planes must perpendicular to each other
If they are not, they will be unstable.
For examine the two up quarks of proton each with a color charge of two would contain 4 twodimensional planes (one for each charge). However, according to Einstein each dimensional plane has the flexibility to orient itself to oppose or cancel the charge of another one. Therefore, when up quark combines with a down quark in a proton the twodimensional plane that define its charge can orient itself to oppose or cancel one of the charges of the up quarks. This means it will have forces only 3 of 4 dimensional planes associated with the 2 up quarks
This will form a stable structure in threedimensional space because it contains the (xy, yz, xz) planes which can be perpendicular to each other.
Neutrons on the other hand contains one up quark and two down quarks. It is neutral because the 1/3 charge on each of the two down quarks cancels the 2/3 charge of the up quark.
But it also consists four two dimensional planes which means it cannot exist in threedimensional space.
However, when close enough to a proton it can borrow enough “binding” energy from the proton to cause its two down quarks to line up along the same twodimensional plane of threedimension space. This will result in that plane having the opposite color charge of two down quarks which will result in a neutron having no charge when it interacts with the two charges of the up quark This also means the xy, yz, xz planes would define the threedimensional volume of a neutron because they do not have any of the forces that define its color charge. This is true even though one may have twice the color charge of the other two. This will result in it being stable when near enough to borrow some binding energy from proton
However. when a neutron it is not close enough to proton to borrow the energy required to line up the twodimensional planes that define the color charge of the down quarks, they will the unstable configuration of 4 dimensional planes causing it to be unstable and decaying in a proton electron and neutrino. The energy of the associate with the neutrino is the energy the neutron would represent the energy the neutron borrowed from the proton.
As was mentioned earlier Einstein gave us a way to quantify the energy stored in the orientation of the dimensional axis.
However, in doing so he gave us the ability to quantify the energy they could provide to bond the quarks together as was shown above to form protons and neutrons in terms of orientation of their dimensional axis.
If these to values agree with observation it would support the above conclusion that the color charge of each quark represents orientation of three twodimensional plane (xy, yz, xz) of threedimensional space responsible of its charge.
The post Einstein on the internal structure of protons and neutrons appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>The post Article 45 Defining Maxwells Equation in terms of the physical properties of space time appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>In Maxwell’s mathematical formulation of electromagnetism, he defined light as a propagating electromagnetic wave created by the interaction of its electric and magnetic fields
While Einstein in his General Theory of Relativity defined the forces associated with gravity in terms of a geometric curvature or spatial displacement in spacetime caused by its energy density.
Additionally, he showed that it was directed along the radius of the curvature in the twodimensional plane that was parallel to it.
Therefore, to explain how Maxwells equations can be defined in terms of a spacetime environment one must show how both the observable and mathematical properties of an electromagnetic: such as why its wave properties are created by the interaction of its electric and magnetic fields and why polarized light has a perpendicular orientation in terms of the geometry of space time.
Additionally, one must also show why its electrical and magnetic components are in phase, it’s the only form of energy that can move at the speed of light along with the defining the reason why it always appears as a photon when observed or interacts with its environment in terms of that same geometry.
As was just mentioned gravity’s force vector is along the radius of one of dimensional plains of threedimensional space. However, that does not mean the other two plains of threedimensional space cannot contribute to energy content of space.
The fact that light is polarized supports that assumption because it allows one to understand the mechanism responsible for its perpendicular orientation in terms light waves moving on the different dimensional plains that are perpendicular to each other.
However, one ALSO allow one to explain both the observations and Maxwell equations in terms of the dimensional prosperity of space if one assumes the electrical and magnetic are components of light are propagated by spatial displacements created by an energy wave moving on the surface of one of those twodimensional plains.
(This assumption is supported by Einstein suggestion that spatial displacements in one of the threedimensional plains of threedimensional space is responsible for gravitational energy.
One can understand the mechanism responsible by using the analogy of how a wave on the twodimensional surface of water causes a point on that surface to become displaced or rise above or below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present.
The science of wave mechanics tells us a force would be developed by those displacements which would result in the elevated and depressed portions of the water moving towards or becoming “attracted” to each other and the surface of the water.
Similarly, an energy wave on the “surface” on one of the two spatial dimensions that are perpendicular to the axis of gravitational forces would cause a point on that “surface” to become displaced or rise above and below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present.
Therefore, classical wave mechanics, if extrapolated to the properties of two of the three spatial dimensions of our universe that are perpendicular the one responsible for gravity tells us a force will be developed by the differential displacements of energy wave which will result in its elevated and depressed portions moving towards or become “attracted” to each other as the wave moves through space.
This would define the causality of the attractive electrical fields associated with an electromagnetic wave in terms of a force caused by the alternating displacements of a wave moving with respect to time on a “surface” of the two spatial dimensions which are perpendicular to the axis of gravitational forces.
However, it also provides a classical mechanism for understanding why similar electrical fields repel each other. This is because observations of waves show there is a direct relationship between the magnitude of a displacement in its “surface” to the magnitude of the force resisting that displacement.
Similarly, the magnitude of multiple displacements in a “surface” of a twodimensional plain in spacetime will be greater than that caused by a single one. Therefore, they will repel each other because the magnitude of the force resisting the displacement will be greater than it would be for a single one.
One can also derive the magnetic component of an electromagnetic wave in terms of the horizontal force developed along the axis that is perpendicular to the displacement caused by its peaks and troughs associated with the electric fields.
This would be analogous to how the perpendicular displacement of a mountain generates a horizontal force on the surface of the earth, which pulls matter horizontally towards the apex of that displacement.
This also explain why the electrical and magnetic fields of an electromagnetic wave are in phase or maximum at the same time in terms of the geometric properties of space time defined by Einstein
However, it also provides an explanation for why electromagnetic waves can transmit energy through space at the speed of light.
The observations and the science of wave mechanics tell us waves move energy through water, causing it to move in a circular motion therefore it does not actually travel with waves. In other words, waves transmit energy, not water, across the ocean and if not obstructed by anything, they have the potential to travel across an entire ocean basin.
Similarly, an electromagnetic wave will cause the geometry of space time to move in a circular motion and therefore the geometric components of space Einstein associated with mass do not move with respect to its velocity vector. Additionally, if not obstructed by anything, they have the potential to travel across an entire universe to the velocity of light.
As was just shown the speed of a wave on water is defined in part by the rate at which its particles interact.
Therefore, the speed of light would depend on the rate at which the electrical and magnetic components interact.
Therefore, its velocity is constant in free space with no obstacles to its motion because the rate at which its electrical and magnetic components interact is constant.
However, to understand how and why an electromagnetic wave evolves into photon one must connect its evolution to that environment.
One can accomplish this by using the science of wave mechanics and the properties of spacetime as define by Einstein.
For example, an electromagnetic wave is observed to move continuously through space and time unless it is prevented from doing so by someone or something interacting with it. This would result in its energy being confined to threedimensional space. The science of wave mechanics tells us the threedimensional “walls” of this confinement will result in its energy being reflected back on itself thereby creating a resonant or standing wave in threedimensional space. This would cause its wave energy to be concentrated at the point in space were a particle would be found.
Additionally, wave mechanics also tells us the energy of a resonant system, such as a standing wave can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency.
This explains why an electromagnetic wave if it is prevented from moving through spacetime either by being observed or encountering an object is reduced or “Collapses” to a form a standing wave that would define the quantized energy Quantum Mechanics associates with a particle.
However, this also provides a Classical mechanism in terms of Einstein theories for defining one of the core principals Quantum Mechanics in that when field properties light and all other forms of energy are prevented from moving through space either by being observed or encountering an object that energy will become quantized in the form of a particle.
This shows how one can define all of the mathematical of Maxwells equation in terms of the physical properties of space time
The post Article 45 Defining Maxwells Equation in terms of the physical properties of space time appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>The post A background independent quantum gravity in terms of Relativity. appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>Background independence is a condition in theoretical physics that requires the defining equations of a theory to be independent of the actual shape of spacetime and the value of various fields within it. In particular this means that it must be possible not to refer to a specific coordinate system—the theory must be coordinatefree. In addition, the different spacetime configurations (or backgrounds) should be obtained as different solutions of the underlying equations.
Einstein defined gravity and the shape or geometry of space in terms of its energy density while defining the interaction of gravitating bodies in terms of a gravity wave moving through space. Therefore, to define a background independent quantum gravity one must first show why its energy is quantized and then show why it is independent of the geometry and the value of the various fields within the spacetime it occupies.
Relatively and the science of wave mechanics tells us wave energy moves continuously through spacetime unless it is prevented from doing so by someone or something interacting with it. This would result in its energy being confined to threedimensional space. The science of wave mechanics also tells us the threedimensional “walls” of this confinement will result in its energy being reflected back on itself thereby creating a resonant or standing wave in threedimensional space. This would cause its wave energy to be concentrated at the point in space were a particle would be found. Additionally, wave mechanics also tells us the energy of a resonant system, such as a standing wave can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency.
This defines how and why the field properties of space time can evolve to create a quantized increase in the energy density and therefore gravity in a spacetime environment.
This suggests the quantization of gravity is not a fundamental property of space but a dynamic one of continuous property of spacetime.
As was mentioned earlier Einstein defined gravity and the shape or geometry of space in terms of its energy density. However as was shown above its value would be independent of the value of the various fields within it and the coordinate system in which it is formed because its geometry is only related to the number and quantum properties of particles in a volume of space.
However, some feel that this would contradict the fact that gravity waves cause acceleration when they interact with objects which they feel suggests they are background dependent because they change geometry of space as they move through it.
The reason this is not true is because the energy density associated with a mass is static or unchanging with respect to the geometry of space, it can be defined by the background independent equation of Special Relativity.
However, because Einstein defined the propagation of energy including gravitational in terms of waves moving through space at the speed of light means the energy associated with a collision of two gravitating masses would result in that energy being radiated through space at the speed of light in the form of gravity waves. This suggests they would obey the same laws that govern the relativistic properties of space and time associated with background. independent properties of electromagnetic energy in Special Relativity.
This is how Einstein could have defined a background independent quantum gravity in terms of the relativistic properties of space time as defined by him.
Einstein’s Explanation of the Unexplainable
The post A background independent quantum gravity in terms of Relativity. appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>The post Einstein on the internal structure of protons and neutrons appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>It can be shown Einstein may have been able to derive the internal structure of protons and neutrons if he was aware they had one before he died. This is because he was the first to define the flexibility of the spatial dimensions when he defined the force of gravity in terms of a curvature in them.
Observations of hadrons such as protons and neutrons confirmed they are made up of distinct components called quarks of which there are six types, the UP/Down, Charm/Strange and Top/Bottom. The Up, Charm and Top have a fractional charge of 2/3. While the Down, Strange and Bottom have a fractional charge of 1/3. However, no one has been able to define their internal structure in terms of observations.
However, another property of quarks defined by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is their color charge which are red, green, and blue. It assumes each one is made up of three different colors of quarks red, blue and green and only the combinations of the colors that produce “white” can be found in a stable particle.
It will be shown the color charge of each quark represents orientation of three twodimensional plane (xy, yz, xz) of threedimensional space responsible of its charge.
For example, red would represent the xy plane green, the yz, and blue xz. The fact that threedimensional space contains only one of each explains why particle must be composed of one each color to be stable.
However, before we begin, we must first define how and why the color charge of a quark is related to the twodimensional planes mentioned earlier
As was shown in Article 12 (page 61) the alternating charge of an electromagnetic wave are the result of displacement in the twodimensional planes of space that it is moving on. .
Briefly it showed the electric and magnetic components of an electromagnetic wave are the result of a spatial displacement in the twodimensional “surface” of threedimension space.
One can understand the mechanism responsible by using the analogy of how a wave on the twodimensional surface of water causes a point on that surface to become displaced or rise above or below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present.
The science of wave mechanics tells us a force would be developed by these displacements which would result in the elevated and depressed portions of the water moving towards or becoming “attracted” to each other and the surface of the water.
Similarly, an energy wave on the “surface” of the two spatial dimensions that are perpendicular to the axis of gravitational forces would cause a point on that “surface” to become displaced or rise above and below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present.
Therefore, classical wave mechanics, if extrapolated to the properties of two of the three spatial dimensions of our universe tell us a force will be developed by the differential displacements caused by an energy wave on it which will result in its elevated and depressed portions moving towards or become “attracted” to each other as the wave moves through space.
This would define the causality of the attractive electrical fields associated with an electromagnetic wave in terms of a force caused by the alternating displacements of a wave moving with respect to time on a “surface” of the two spatial dimensions which are perpendicular to the axis of gravitational forces.
However, it also provides a classical mechanism for understanding why similar electrical fields repel each other. This is because observations of waves show there is a direct relationship between the magnitude of a displacement in its “surface” to the magnitude of the force resisting that displacement.
Similarly, the magnitude of a displacement in a “surface” of the two spatial dimensions will be greater than that caused by a single one. Therefore, they will repel each other because the magnitude of the force resisting the displacement will be greater than it would be for a single one.
One can also derive the magnetic component of an electromagnetic wave in terms of the horizontal force developed along the axis that is perpendicular to the displacement caused by its peaks and troughs associated with the electric fields. This would be analogous to how the perpendicular displacement of a mountain generates a horizontal force on the surface of the earth, which pulls matter horizontally towards the apex of that displacement.
Even though the above explanation of how a charge is related to an alternating displacement in the “surface” of threedimensional space it also can explain a static one in terms of their relative positions in.
For example, Einstein showed us if a twodimensional plane is displaced with respect to another in threedimensional space a force responsible for static charge would be developed similar as was shown earlier to how the peaks and valleys of an electromagnetic did.
As was mentioned earlier Einstein define forces such as gravity in terms of the flexibility of the spatial dimensions.
However, one can derive the internal structure of protons and neutrons if one assumes orientation of the color charges of quarks are the result of the flexibility of the twodimensional planes which earlier were defined as being responsible for them.
This is because for a proton or neutron to be stable in threedimension space the orientation of the xy, yz, and xz dimensional planes must perpendicular to each other
If they are not, they will be unstable.
For examine the two up quarks of proton each with a color charge of two would contain 4 twodimensional planes (one for each charge). However, according to Einstein each dimensional plane has the flexibility to orient itself to oppose or cancel the charge of another one. Therefore, when up quark combines with a down quark the twodimensional plane that define its charge can orient itself to oppose or cancel one of the charges of the up quarks. This means it will have forces only 3 of 4 dimensional planes associated with the 2 up quarks
This will form a stable structure in threedimensional space because it contains the (xy, yz, xz) planes which can be perpendicular to each other.
Neutrons on the other hand contains one up quark and two down quarks. It is neutral because the 1/3 charge on each of the two down quarks cancel the 2/3 charge of the up quark.
But it also consists four two dimensional planes which means it cannot exist in threedimensional space.
However, when close enough to a proton it can borrow enough binding energy required to cause its two down quarks to line up along the same twodimensional plane of threedimension space. This will result in that plane having the opposite color charge of two down quarks which will result in a neutron having no charge when it interacts with the two charges of the up quark This also means the xy, yz, xz planes would define the threedimensional volume of a neutron it because they do not have any of the forces that define it color charge. This is true even though one may have twice the color charge of the other two. This will result in it being stable when near enough to borrow some binding energy from proton
However. when a neutron it is not the two twodimensional planes that define the color charges of the down quarks will not line up resulting in it having 4 dimensional planes resulting in it being unstable and decaying in a proton electron and neutrino.
As was mentioned earlier a stable electric charge is the result of a static spatial displacement in a twodimensional plain of the threedimensional space.
This suggests one could describe their geometry in terms of how those planes are oriented.
For example, if a proton is made up two up quarks each with a positive charge of 2/3 and its charge is the result of a displacement in dimensional plane of threedimensional space each one would contain 2 and combined would contain 4.
However, this means a proton would consist of four spatial dimensions which could not exist in our threedimensional universe. Therefore, to correct that it attracts a down quark which has a negative or opposite spatial displacement with respect to one of those dimensional planes. This would reduce its spatial properties to three allowing it to exist in our universe.
However, it also would change their orientation with respect each other. Instead of being perpendicular it would be 60degree. This is because as was just mentioned the 2 up quarks of a proton would contain 4 dimensional planes creating fourdimensional spatial object which cannot exist in threedimensional space. However, when it combines with the negative dimensional energy Einstein would have associated a down quark it cancels out one of the four dimensional planes associated with the 2 up quarks of a proton leaving only three which can exist in threedimensional space.
But when one removes one side of a square it allows one of three sides to connect to one of the others to form an equilateral triangle This suggest the energy associated with the rearraigning the orientation of dimensional planes from 90 degrees to 60 creating the object which is responsible for both the positive charge and stability of a proton. I believe Einstein would have come to this conclusion if he as was mentioned earlier, he had known protons had an internal structure.
The post Einstein on the internal structure of protons and neutrons appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>The post What supports the geometry of spacetime? appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>When Einstein defined the equivalence between mass and energy, he also defined what “support the geometry of space…
In his General Theory of Relativity, he defined the force of gravity in terms of the energy density of space. This implies the mass and energy associated with it supports the geometric structure space because the equation E=mc^2 tell us when energy is concentrated in the form of mass it causes the geometry of space to contract creating the curvature he associated with gravity.
Additionally, the Big Bang’s assumption the universe expansion is the result of the energy associated with its origin can only be explained by assuming it is pushing on its boundaries.
Additionally, we have observed that the CBM (cosmic background radiation) imparts the energy associated with its 2.725 Kelvin temperature to even perfectly “empty” space devoid of all gas, dust, and particular matter.
The fact that concentrating energy in the form of mass results in space contacting while increasing it by releasing the energy contained in mass cause it to expand support the assumption space that does not contain any particular mass is not empty but contains energy.
Therefore because, Einstein’s equation E=mc^2 tells us space without any particular matter is not empty but contains the mass equivalent of the CBM defined by that equation.
The mechanism responsible would be analogous to how the volume of a balloon is supported by the air inside of it.
For example, if the air pressure increases its volume will expand while if it decreases it will contract.
Yet it also tells us how one can explain the quantum properties of energy and mass in terms of it being an emergent property of space if it contains a continuous field of energy.
For example, by using the science of wave mechanics and the fact that Relativity tells us energy would move through space on a continuous field of energy such as the one provided by the cosmic background radiation unless it is prevented from doing so by someone or something interacting with it. This would result in it being confined to threedimensional space. The science of wave mechanics also tells us the threedimensional “walls” of this confinement will result in its energy being reflected back on itself thereby creating a resonant or standing wave in threedimensional space. This would cause the energy of an energy wave to be concentrated at the point in space were a quantized particle would be found.
Additionally, wave mechanics also tells us the energy of a resonant system such as a standing wave can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency.
This explanation of why mass and energy are quantized is consistent with the observations of the environment defined by quantum mechanics in that the mathematical properties associated with the wave function will continue to evolve as a wave moving through space and only reduces of “collapses” to a quantized packed of energy when it is observed or encounters an object.
This defines how Einstein could have explain what an “empty” volume of space contains AND the observations associated with its quantization in terms of it being an emergent property of the continuous energy field or space as defined by him.
This also answers the question of how an electromagnetic wave can propagate though seeming “empty space because as was shown above what appears to be empty space is not empty but contains continuous field of energy which, it can propagate similar to how wave propagates on water
The post What supports the geometry of spacetime? appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>The post A fan of Einstein’s work? This is the book for you. appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>Thus, his work holds imperative value and should be studied even today. Maybe that is why it was a great idea for Jeffrey O’Callaghan to write a book about it.
Ever since I picked up “Einstein’s Explanation of the Unexplainable,” I’ve been completely engrossed and enraptured. While I always had a great admiration for Einstein and his work, I never really understood it on a fundamental level. This book helped me do just that. I must give credit where it’s due, of course. The author does a great job of explaining theories that would otherwise go above my head.
The book is filled with the theories and works of Einstein’s life. But… they’re explained in a way that makes it easy for just about anyone to understand. That means you don’t need to be an expert in the field to grasp the concepts. You can just be curious or want to know more.
For example, let’s discuss one of the topics mentioned in the book that captured my attention. In the very first article of the book titled, “Do the Laws of Physics Break Down in a Black Hole?”, he talks about one of the most important theories that have plagued many a scientist back in the day. This, of course, is the theory of general relativity.
Black holes pose a concern because they are enormously large and incredibly remote. Our ability to see their backsides is obstructed, and the signals coming from that side are weak. This makes it challenging to explain and nearly impossible to observe the swirling, extremely hot materials pouring into them (the accretion disc).
When Einstein first explained his theory of general relativity, it was considered extremely outlandish. What is the theory? Gravitational lensing is a phenomenon that amplifies light and causes it to move along a different trajectory than it might otherwise, each of which is caused by the distortion of space and time that large objects like black holes cause.
The English astronomer Arthur Eddington and colleagues made the first recorded observations of this phenomenon during a full solar eclipse in 1919, which propelled Einstein and his untested hypothesis to notoriety. Normally, stars stay in one spot in the night sky, whereas during the eclipse, those that were behind the Sun looked to have moved because the Sun’s gravity altered the path that their light took to reach earth.
In this chapter, he also answers the question posed in the chapter title itself, but I’ll leave that for you to discover.
Later Jeff
The post A fan of Einstein’s work? This is the book for you. appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>The post The Realty behind the wave function and Relativity appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>One can define reality as the world or the state of things as they actually exist, as opposed to an idealistic or notional idea of them.
Currently there are two ways science attempts to explain and define the reality of our universe. The first is Quantum mechanics or the branch of physics defines its evolution in terms of the probabilities associated with the wave function. The other is the deterministic environment of Relativity which defines it in terms of a physical interaction between space and time.
Specifically, Relativity would define the observable positions of particles in terms of where the point defining their center of mass is located.
While quantum mechanics uses the mathematical interpretation of the wave function to define the most probable position of a particle when observed.
Since we all live in the same world you would expect the probabilistic approach of quantum mechanics to be compatible with the deterministic one of Einstein. Unfortunately, they define two different worlds which appear to be incompatible. One defines existence in terms of the probabilities while the other defines it in terms of the deterministic of properties of space and time.
However, to show why those probabilities appear to be incompatible with Relativity’s determinism even though they are NOT it will be necessary to explain the evolution of quantum environment in terms of a deterministic interaction between the components of a spacetime environment.
For example, when we role dice in a casino most of us realize the probability of a six appearing is related to or is caused by its physical interaction with properties of the table in the casino where it is rolled. Putting it another way what defines the fact that six appears is NOT the probability of getting one but the interaction of the dice with the table and the casino it occupies.
This suggests to show the “reality” behind the wave function one MUST explain how its environment evolves in terms of how the physical components of spacetime interact to define a particles position.
The fact that Relativity defines evolution of spacetime in terms of the energy propagated by electromagnetic wave while Quantum Mechanics defines it in terms of the mathematical evolution of the wave function give us a starting point. This is because it suggests the evolution in both is defined in define by a wave.
To define the position of a particle in terms of the deterministic properties of Relativity one can use the science of wave mechanics along with the fact Relativity tells us an electromagnetic wave move continuously through spacetime unless it is prevented from doing so by someone observing or something interacting with it. This would result in its energy being confined to threedimensional space. The science of wave mechanic also tells us the threedimensional “walls” of this confinement will result in its energy being reflected back on itself thereby creating a resonant or standing wave in threedimensional space. This would cause its wave energy to COLLAPSE and be concentrated at the point in space were a particle would be found. Additionally, wave mechanics also tells us the energy of a resonant system, such as a standing wave can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency. This means a particle would occupy an extended volume of space defined by the wavelength of its standing wave.
Putting it another way what defines the fact that a particle appears where it does is NOT determined by the probabilities associated with the wave function but a deterministic interaction of an electromagnetic wave with the physical properties of spacetime.
(NOTE We will use a particles position to make the connection between the probabilities of Quantum mechanics and the determinism of Relativity but the same logic will apply to all conjugate pairs.)
However, the probabilistic interpretation of the wave function is defines its reality because it use a mathematical point to represent a position of a particle which it randomly places with respect to the center of a particle. Therefore, the randomness of where that point is with respect to a particle’s center will result in its position, when observed to be randomly distributed in space. This means one must define its position in terms of probabilities to average the deviations that are caused by that random placement.
Yet as was mentioned earlier Reality defines the position of particles in terms of where the point defining their center of mass is located. Therefore, because similar to quantum mechanics Relativity cannot precisely determine where that point is located it would also have to define their exact position in terms of probabilities.
However, the large number of particles in objects such as a moon or planet would result in averaging out the deviation of the position of each their individual particles it appears to be deterministic.
But the same logic would apply to a quantum environment because its probabilistic deviations of a particle’s position would average out making the position of large objects such as the mom and planets appear to be deterministic.
This suggests the reason our universe appears indeterminate on a quantum scale while being deterministic on a macroscopic level is because similar to Relativity those deviations would be averaged out by the large number of particles in objects like the moon and planets.
As was mentioned earlier one can define reality as the world or the state of things as they actually exist, as opposed to an idealistic or notional idea of them.
Therefore, as was shown above one can define the Reality of the probabilistic world of quantum mechanics and the deterministic one of Relativity by assuming actual existence of an electromagnetic wave whose evolution can be defined by the notional idea of the wave function.
The post The Realty behind the wave function and Relativity appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>The post The effect gravity has on the geometry of spacetime inside a black hole appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>In an earlier posting (# 1. Do the laws of physics break down in a black hole? << https://theimagineershome.com/face_book_posings.htm >>) we defined what happens to matter as it falls into a black hole and why a singularity cannot form at its center in terms of inertial reference frames as define by Einstein. However, now we would like to explain why one cannot form in terms of the effects gravity has on the geometry of his spacetime universe.
The German physicist Karl Schwarzschild was the first to predict the existence of a black hole when in 1915, he found a solution to Einstein field equations which suggested the existence of perfectly spherical object embedded in otherwise empty space which not even light can escape from. The observations of black holes confirmed the existence of these spherical objects
Additionally, he determined where its event horizon would be with respect to its center in terms of the strength of its gravitational field. He also suggested that matter after passing though it would continue to “fall” towards the center forming a singularity where its entire mass is concentrated in a onedimensional point.
HOWEVER, OBSERATIONS AND EINSTIENS FIELD EQUATIONS SUGGEST THAT MATTER MAY NOT REPEAT NOT BECOME CONCENTRATED IN A SINGULARITY OR ONEDIMENSIONAL POINT AFTER ENCOUNTERING THE EVENT HORIZION OF A BLACK HOLE.
As mentioned earlier light cannot escape a black hole therefore we cannot observe what happens to matter after passing through its event horizon. This means physicists can ONLY repeat ONLY use the observations of what happens to matter before encountering it and Einstein field equations to understand what happens to it after it does.
Earlier it was mentioned Schwarzschild suggested that matter would continue to fall towards the center of a black hole after passing through its event horizon forming singularity at its center.
However, the observation and as was shown in the post mentioned earlier # 1. Do the laws of physics break down in a black hole? << https://theimagineershome.com/face_book_posings.htm >>) matter moves slower and slower as it approaches the event horizon eventually stopping as at it reaches it suggests that a singularity may NOT repeat NOT form at its center.
This is because Einstein field equations which were used to defined where the event horizon occurs in a black hole did so in terms of where the strength of its gravitational field in relation to its center was strong enough to create one. However, this means there will be an internal event horizon at every point along the radius of a black hole where there was enough gravitational energy to create one. In other word, even though we cannot observe them Einstein field equations that Schwarzschild use to predict the existence of an event horizon tell us a black hole MAY repeat MAY consists of a series of internal ones at each point along its radius.
Therefore, his equations tell us at every point inside a black hole where there has enough gravitational potential to create an internal event horizon matter should behave similar to how it does when it encounters one, we can observe.
This suggest that matter does NOT repeat NOT continue to move towards the center of a black hole to form a singularity but is prevented from doing so by the gravitational barrier that exists at every point where its potential is large enough to create one.
So, if a singularly is not at the center of a black hole what is.
We know the densest form of observable matter is found in a neutron star where the gravitational forces are strong enough to overcome the forces keeping electrons protons and neutron apart.
However, their gravitational potential is not large enough to create a black hole.
Observations also tell us a neutron star is capable of becoming a black hole if it absorbs enough mass and energy to form an event horizon. However, that does not mean that its neutron core collapses to a singularity. This is because as was just shown Einstein field equations tell us the curvature of spacetime at every point inside a black hole where the gravitational potential is large enough would create an internal event horizon.
This suggests a black hole may NOT repeat NOT be made up of matter that has completely collapsed to singularity but instead is made up of the core of a neutron star and matter “orbiting” or internally trapped in successive layers in the spherical geometry of spacetime that defines an event horizon.
This suggests there MAY repeat MAY be a volume of spacetime with no matter present between surface of its neutron core and where the first internal event horizon has formed.
This would be analogous to how planet orbits or is trapped in the gravitational field of a star. The total mass of a star system is made up of the sun and the planets trapped in a volume of spacetime created its gravitational field.
Similarly, the total mass of black hole MAY repeat MAY consist of the core of a neutron star and the matter forever trapped by its internal event horizons.
The post The effect gravity has on the geometry of spacetime inside a black hole appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>The post Articles posted in 2022 appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>Articles posted in 2021 2020, 2019 , 2017 and 18 , 2016 , 2015 , 2014 , 2013 , 2012 , 2011 , 2010 , 2009 , 2008 , and 2007
Please click here for a brief summary of the ideas presented in this blog.
Preface
The purpose of this blog is to elaborate on the theoretical ideas contained in its companion book “The Reality of Four Spatial Dimensions”
in Thomas S. Kuhn’s book “The Structure of Scientific Revolution” he documents the doubts that precipitate a paradigm change in scientific thought.
For example, even though one could still make accurate predictions of planetary motions using the 15 century geocentric models it became increasing more difficult to integrate that concept with the more accurate observational data provided by the new technologies of that day. This resulted in some scientists questioning their validity.
He suggests the doubt generated by its persistent inability of to explain new data lead many scientists of that period to adopt the simpler rules of the revolutionary heliocentric model.
Modern physics appears to be on the verge of a similar revolution because the discoveries of dark matter and dark energy are extremely difficult to integrate into its current theoretical models.
As Thomas S. Kuhn points out failure of an existing paradigm is a prelude to the search for a new one.
It continues the search, began in its companion book the “The Reality of Four Spatial Dimensions” to not only explain how one can seamlessly integrate the observations of dark matter and dark energy into a theoretical model based on the existence of four *spatial* dimensions but to provide a unifying mechanism responsible for the four forces of nature (gravity, electromagnetism, the weak, and strong) governing the interactions of matter, energy, space, and time.
Each article covers one aspect of a search for the “reality” it defines. For example, the article “What is dark energy” defines its casually in terms of an interaction of threedimensional space with a fourth while others derive the quantum mechanical properties of energy/mass in terms of a resonant system formed by a matter wave on a “surface” of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
It is not meant to verify the many answers found in the book “The Reality of Four Spatial Dimensions”. Instead it is meant to give the scientific community the specific information and experiment techniques required to either verify or falsify it contents. It relies less on mathematics and more on conceptual logic and thought experiments (much like Albert Einstein did) to show how one can explain and predict all modern observations by extrapolating the rules defining classical threedimensional space to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2021
“The universe’s most powerful enabling tool is not knowledge or understanding but imagination because it extends the reality of one’s environment.”
Topic

Articles posted in 2021 2020, 2019 , 2017 and 18 , 2016 , 2015 , 2014 , 2013 , 2012 , 2011 , 2010 , 2009 , 2008 , and 2007
Word count: 518 Last edited by jeffocal on July 28, 2022 at 1:57 pm
Move upMove downToggle panel: Publish
Preview Changes(opens in a new tab)Preview changes in AMP (opens in new window)
Status: Published EditEdit status
Visibility: Public EditEdit visibility
Revisions: 10 BrowseBrowse revisions
Published on: May 20, 2022 at 16:34 EditEdit date and time
AMP: Enabled EditEdit Status
Readability: Needs improvement
SEO: Not available
Purge from cache
Move to Trash
Move upMove downToggle panel: Categories
All Categories Most Used
9 Article lists
1. Predictions
2. Theoretical
3. Relativity
4. Paritcle phsysics
5. Cosmology
6. The Unexplained
7. Philosophy
8. Quantum Mechanics
+ Add New Category
Move upMove downToggle panel: Tags
Add New Tag
Separate tags with commas
Choose from the most used tags
Move upMove downToggle panel: Featured image
Set featured image
Move upMove downToggle panel: Yoast internal linking
Move upMove downToggle panel: Format
Post Formats Standard
Aside
Image
Video
Quote
Link
Status
Move upMove downToggle panel: Layout
Sidebars
Footer Widgets
Disable Elements
Content Container
Default
Move upMove downToggle panel: Yoast SEO Premium
Need help?
Content optimization
Enter a focus keyword to calculate the SEO scoreSocialAdvanced
ReadabilityNeeds improvementEnter your focus keyword+ Add keyword
Snippet preview
SEO title preview:
Articles posted in 2022  Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories
Url preview:https://www.theimagineershome.com › blog › articlespostedin2022
Meta description preview:
Please provide a meta description by editing the snippet below. If you don’t, Google will try to find a relevant part of your post to show in the search results.
Mobile previewDesktop previewEdit snippet
Focus keyword
Show information about the focus keywordEnter a focus keyword
This article is cornerstone content
Keyword synonyms
Enter synonyms for your focus keyword. Separate individual synonyms with commas. Learn more about keyword synonyms.(Opens in a new browser tab)
Analysis
Show information about the content analysis
Problems (3)
No focus keyword was set for this page. If you do not set a focus keyword, no score can be calculated.
No meta description has been specified. Search engines will display copy from the page instead.
No images appear in this page, consider adding some as appropriate.
Improvements (2)
No outbound links appear in this page, consider adding some as appropriate.
The slug for this page contains a stop word, consider removing it.
Good results (3)
The text contains 550 words. This is more than or equal to the recommended minimum of 300 words.
This page has 33 internal link(s).
The SEO title has a nice length.
Insights
Prominent words
The following words and word combinations occur the most in the content. These give an indication of what your content focuses on. If the words differ a lot from your topic, you might want to rewrite your content accordingly.
18 2016 2015 2014 2013
2016 2015 2014 2013 2012
2015 2014 2013 2012 2011
2014 2013 2012 2011 2010
2013 2012 2011 2010 2009
Read our ultimate guide to keyword research to learn more about keyword research and keyword strategy.
Move upMove downToggle panel: Excerpt
Excerpt
Excerpts are optional handcrafted summaries of your content that can be used in your theme. Learn more about manual excerpts.
Move upMove downToggle panel: Custom Fields
Name Value
Key
ampforwpamponoff
Value
default
Key
ampforwpredirectiononoff
Value
enable
Key
ampforwp_custom_content_editor
Value
Key
ampforwp_custom_content_editor_checkbox
Value
Add New Custom Field:
Name Value
— Select —
Enter new
Custom fields can be used to add extra metadata to a post that you can use in your theme.
Move upMove downToggle panel: Slug
Slug
articlespostedin2022
Move upMove downToggle panel: Author
Author
jeffocal (jeffocal)
Move upMove downToggle panel: Revisions
jeffocal, 1 month ago (July 28, 2022 @ 13:57:04)
jeffocal, 1 month ago (July 28, 2022 @ 13:56:54) [Autosave]
jeffocal, 1 month ago (July 28, 2022 @ 12:06:07)
jeffocal, 1 month ago (July 28, 2022 @ 11:57:17)
jeffocal, 1 month ago (July 26, 2022 @ 10:11:40)
jeffocal, 3 months ago (May 20, 2022 @ 16:32:37)
jeffocal, 3 months ago (May 20, 2022 @ 16:27:59)
jeffocal, 3 months ago (May 20, 2022 @ 16:27:03)
jeffocal, 3 months ago (May 20, 2022 @ 16:22:01)
jeffocal, 3 months ago (May 20, 2022 @ 16:21:05)
Move upMove downToggle panel: Send Trackbacks
Send trackbacks to:
Separate multiple URLs with spaces
Trackbacks are a way to notify legacy blog systems that you’ve linked to them. If you link other WordPress sites, they’ll be notified automatically using pingbacks, no other action necessary.
Move upMove downToggle panel: Discussion
Allow comments
Allow trackbacks and pingbacks on this page
Move upMove downToggle panel: Comments
Add Comment
No comments yet.
Thank you for creating with WordPress.Version 6.0.1
The post Articles posted in 2022 appeared first on Unifying Quantum and Relativistic Theories.
]]>