Einstein on the internal structure of protons and neutrons

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Einstein’s Explanation of the Unexplainable

It can be shown Einstein may have been able to derive the internal structure of protons and neutrons if he was aware they had one before he died.  This is because he was the first to define the flexibility of the spatial dimensions when he defined the force of gravity in terms of a curvature in them.

Observations of hadrons such as protons and neutrons confirmed they are made up of distinct components called quarks of which there are six types, the UP/Down, Charm/Strange and Top/Bottom. The Up, Charm and Top have a fractional charge of 2/3. While the Down, Strange and Bottom have a fractional charge of -1/3. However, no one has been able to define their internal structure in terms of observations.

However, another property of quarks defined by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is their color charge which are red, green, and blue. It assumes each one is made up of three different colors of quarks red, blue and green and only the combinations of the colors that produce “white” can be found in a stable particle.

It will be shown the color charge of each quark represents orientation of three two-dimensional plane (xy, yz, xz) of three-dimensional space responsible of its charge.

For example, red would represent the xy plane green, the yz, and blue xz. The fact that three-dimensional space contains only one of each explains why particle must be composed of one each color to be stable.

However, before we begin, we must first define how and why the color charge of a quark is related to the two-dimensional planes mentioned earlier

As was shown in Article 12 (page 61) the alternating charge of an electromagnetic wave are the result of displacement in the two-dimensional planes of space that it is moving on. .

Briefly it showed the electric and magnetic components of an electromagnetic wave are the result of a spatial displacement in the two-dimensional “surface” of three-dimension space.

One can understand the mechanism responsible by using the analogy of how a wave on the two-dimensional surface of water causes a point on that surface to become displaced or rise above or below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present.

The science of wave mechanics tells us a force would be developed by these displacements which would result in the elevated and depressed portions of the water moving towards or becoming “attracted” to each other and the surface of the water.

Similarly, an energy wave on the “surface” of the two spatial dimensions that are perpendicular to the axis of gravitational forces would cause a point on that “surface” to become displaced or rise above and below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present.

Therefore, classical wave mechanics, if extrapolated to the properties of two of the three spatial dimensions of our universe tell us a force will be developed by the differential displacements caused by an energy wave on it which will result in its elevated and depressed portions moving towards or become “attracted” to each other as the wave moves through space.

This would define the causality of the attractive electrical fields associated with an electromagnetic wave in terms of a force caused by the alternating displacements of a wave moving with respect to time on a “surface” of the two spatial dimensions which are perpendicular to the axis of gravitational forces.

However, it also provides a classical mechanism for understanding why similar electrical fields repel each other. This is because observations of waves show there is a direct relationship between the magnitude of a displacement in its “surface” to the magnitude of the force resisting that displacement.

Similarly, the magnitude of a displacement in a “surface” of the two spatial dimensions will be greater than that caused by a single one. Therefore, they will repel each other because the magnitude of the force resisting the displacement will be greater than it would be for a single one.

One can also derive the magnetic component of an electromagnetic wave in terms of the horizontal force developed along the axis that is perpendicular to the displacement caused by its peaks and troughs associated with the electric fields. This would be analogous to how the perpendicular displacement of a mountain generates a horizontal force on the surface of the earth, which pulls matter horizontally towards the apex of that displacement.

Even though the above explanation of how a charge is related to an alternating displacement in the “surface” of three-dimensional space it also can explain a static one in terms of their relative positions in.

For example, Einstein showed us if a two-dimensional plane is displaced with respect to another in three-dimensional space a force responsible for static charge would be developed similar as was shown earlier to how the peaks and valleys of an electromagnetic did.

As was mentioned earlier Einstein define forces such as gravity in terms of the flexibility of the spatial dimensions.

However, one can derive the internal structure of protons and neutrons if one assumes orientation of the color charges of quarks are the result of the flexibility of the two-dimensional planes which earlier were defined as being responsible for them.

This is because for a proton or neutron to be stable in three-dimension space the orientation of the xy, yz, and xz dimensional planes must perpendicular to each other

If they are not, they will be unstable.

For examine the two up quarks of proton each with a color charge of two would contain 4 two-dimensional planes (one for each charge).  However, according to Einstein each dimensional plane has the flexibility to orient itself to oppose or cancel the charge of another one.  Therefore, when up quark combines with a down quark the two-dimensional plane that define its charge can orient itself to oppose or cancel one of the charges of the up quarks.  This means it will have forces only 3 of 4 dimensional planes associated with the 2 up quarks

This will form a stable structure in three-dimensional space because it contains the (xy, yz, xz) planes which can be perpendicular to each other.

Neutrons on the other hand contains one up quark and two down quarks.  It is neutral because the 1/3 charge on each of the two down quarks cancel the 2/3 charge of the up quark.

But it also consists four two dimensional planes which means it cannot exist in three-dimensional space.

However, when close enough to a proton it can borrow enough binding energy required to cause its two down quarks to line up along the same two-dimensional plane of three-dimension space. This will result in that plane having the opposite color charge of two down quarks which will result in a neutron having no charge when it interacts with the two charges of the up quark This also means the xy, yz, xz planes would define the three-dimensional volume of a neutron it because they do not have any of the forces that define it color charge. This is true even though one may have twice the color charge of the other two. This will result in it being stable when near enough to borrow some binding energy from proton

However. when a neutron it is not the two two-dimensional planes that define the color charges of the down quarks will not line up resulting in it having 4 dimensional planes resulting in it being unstable and decaying in a proton electron and neutrino.

As was mentioned earlier a stable electric charge is the result of a static spatial displacement in a two-dimensional plain of the three-dimensional space.

This suggests one could describe their geometry in terms of how those planes are oriented.

For example, if a proton is made up two up quarks each with a positive charge of 2/3 and its charge is the result of a displacement in dimensional plane of three-dimensional space each one would contain 2 and combined would contain 4.

However, this means a proton would consist of four spatial dimensions which could not exist in our three-dimensional universe.  Therefore, to correct that it attracts a down quark which has a negative or opposite spatial displacement with respect to one of those dimensional planes.  This would reduce its spatial properties to three allowing it to exist in our universe.

However, it also would change their orientation with respect each other. Instead of being perpendicular it would be 60-degree. This is because as was just mentioned the 2 up quarks of a proton would contain 4 dimensional planes creating four-dimensional spatial object which cannot exist in three-dimensional space.  However, when it combines with the negative dimensional energy Einstein would have associated a down quark it cancels out one of the four dimensional planes associated with the 2 up quarks of a proton leaving only three which can exist in three-dimensional space.

But when one removes one side of a square it allows one of three sides to connect to one of the others to form an equilateral triangle This suggest the energy associated with the rearraigning the orientation of dimensional planes from 90 degrees to 60 creating the object which is responsible for both the positive charge and stability of a proton. I believe Einstein would have come to this conclusion if he as was mentioned earlier, he had known protons had an internal structure.

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