# Einstein on the internal structure of  protons and neutrons

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Einstein’s Explanation of the Unexplainable

Einstein define a way to determine the energy associated with geometry of space that may be responsible for the internal structure of the protons and neutrons which can quantified

For example, he quantified how the relative motion of an object causes a change the orientation of the dimensional axis to change with respect to each other.

Yet there is another equally valid interpretation which is that change orientation of the dimensional axis is responsible for the energy or momentum of relativity motion. This gives a direct way to quantify how much energy is associated with changing the orientation of the dimensional axis from 90 degrees to something else.

However, this also give us a way quantizing the bonding energy of the quarks that define the interval structure of both protons and neutrons

For example, observations of hadrons such as protons and neutrons confirmed they are made up of distinct components called quarks of which there are six types, the UP/Down, Charm/Strange and Top/Bottom. The Up, Charm and Top have a fractional charge of 2/3. While the Down, Strange and Bottom have a fractional charge of -1/3. However, no one has been able to define their internal structure in terms of observations.

However, another property of quarks defined by Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), is their color charge which are red, green, and blue. It assumes each one is made up of three different colors of quarks red, blue and green and only the combinations of the colors that produce “white” can be found in a stable particle.

It will be shown the color charge of each represents orientation of three two-dimensional plane (xy, yz, xz) of three-dimensional space responsible of its charge.

For example, red would represent the xy plane green, the yz, and blue xz. The fact that three-dimensional space contains only one of each explains why particle must be composed of one each color to be stable.

However, before we begin, we must first define how and why the color charge of a quark is related to the two-dimensional planes mentioned earlier

As was shown in Article 12 (page 61) the alternating charge of an electromagnetic wave are the result of displacement in the two-dimensional planes of space that it is moving on.

Briefly it showed the electric and magnetic components of an electromagnetic wave are the result of a spatial displacement in the two-dimensional “surface” of three-dimension space.

One can understand the mechanism responsible by using the analogy of how a wave on the two-dimensional surface of water causes a point on that surface to become displaced or rise above or below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present.

The science of wave mechanics tells us a force would be developed by these displacements which would result in the elevated and depressed portions of the water moving towards or becoming “attracted” to each other and the surface of the water.

Similarly, an energy wave on the “surface” of the two spatial dimensions that are perpendicular to the axis of gravitational forces would cause a point on that “surface” to become displaced or rise above and below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present.

Therefore, classical wave mechanics, if extrapolated to the properties of two of the three spatial dimensions of our universe tell us a force will be developed by the differential displacements caused by an energy wave on it which will result in its elevated and depressed portions moving towards or become “attracted” to each other as the wave moves through space.

This would define the causality of the attractive electrical fields associated with an electromagnetic wave in terms of a force caused by the alternating displacements of a wave moving with respect to time on a “surface” of the two spatial dimensions which are perpendicular to the axis of gravitational forces.

However, it also provides a classical mechanism for understanding why similar electrical fields repel each other. This is because observations of waves show there is a direct relationship between the magnitude of a displacement in its “surface” to the magnitude of the force resisting that displacement.

Similarly, the magnitude of a displacement in a “surface” of the two spatial dimensions will be greater than that caused by a single one. Therefore, they will repel each other because the magnitude of the force resisting the displacement will be greater than it would be for a single one.

One can also derive the magnetic component of an electromagnetic wave in terms of the horizontal force developed along the axis that is perpendicular to the displacement caused by its peaks and troughs associated with the electric fields. This would be analogous to how the perpendicular displacement of a mountain generates a horizontal force on the surface of the earth, which pulls matter horizontally towards the apex of that displacement.

Even though the above explanation of how a charge is related to an alternating displacement in the “surface” of three-dimensional space it also can explain a static one in terms of their relative positions in it

As was mentioned earlier Einstein define forces such as gravity in terms of the flexibility of the spatial dimensions.

However, one can derive the internal structure of protons and neutrons if one assumes orientation of the color charges of quarks are the result of the flexibility of the two-dimensional planes which earlier were defined as being responsible for them.

This is because for a proton or neutron to be stable in three-dimension space the orientation of the xy, yz, and xz dimensional planes must perpendicular to each other

If they are not, they will be unstable.

For examine the two up quarks of proton each with a color charge of two would contain 4 two-dimensional planes (one for each charge).  However, according to Einstein each dimensional plane has the flexibility to orient itself to oppose or cancel the charge of another one.  Therefore, when up quark combines with a down quark in a proton the two-dimensional plane that define its charge can orient itself to oppose or cancel one of the charges of the up quarks.  This means it will have forces only 3 of 4 dimensional planes associated with the 2 up quarks

This will form a stable structure in three-dimensional space because it contains the (xy, yz, xz) planes which can be perpendicular to each other.

Neutrons on the other hand contains one up quark and two down quarks.  It is neutral because the 1/3 charge on each of the two down quarks cancels the 2/3 charge of the up quark.

But it also consists four two dimensional planes which means it cannot exist in three-dimensional space.

However, when close enough to a proton it can borrow enough “binding” energy from the proton to cause its two down quarks to line up along the same two-dimensional plane of three-dimension space. This will result in that plane having the opposite color charge of two down quarks which will result in a neutron having no charge when it interacts with the two charges of the up quark This also means the xy, yz, xz planes would define the three-dimensional volume of a neutron because they do not have any of the forces that define its color charge. This is true even though one may have twice the color charge of the other two. This will result in it being stable when near enough to borrow some binding energy from proton

However. when a neutron it is not close enough to proton to borrow the energy required to line up the two-dimensional planes that define the color charge of the down quarks, they will the unstable configuration of 4 dimensional planes causing it to be unstable and decaying in a proton electron and neutrino.  The energy of the associate with the neutrino is the energy the neutron would represent the energy the neutron borrowed from the proton.

As was mentioned earlier Einstein gave us a way to quantify the energy stored in the orientation of the dimensional axis.

However, in doing so he gave us the ability to quantify the energy they could provide to bond the quarks together as was shown above to form protons and neutrons in terms of orientation of their dimensional axis.

If these to values agree with observation it would support the above conclusion that the color charge of each quark represents orientation of three two-dimensional plane (xy, yz, xz) of three-dimensional space responsible of its charge.

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