Classical physics is causal; complete knowledge of the past allows for the computation of the future. Likewise, complete knowledge of the future allows precise computation of the past.
Not so in Quantum Physics. Objects are neither particles nor waves; they are a strange combination of both. Given complete knowledge of the past, we can make only probabilistic predictions of the future.
In other words, classical mechanics tells us that only one future exists while quantum mechanics tells us that due to its probabilistic interpretation of wave-particle duality of existence, many different ones simultaneously exist and which one become a reality is determined by observation. Additionally, it states that they are randomly disturbed throughout existence.
On the surface these probabilistic and causal definitions of the future appear to incompatible.
However, that may not be the case.
As mentioned earlier, one of the things that separate the future associated with classical physics from probabilistic one of quantum mechanical is one tell us all of the probable future outcomes of an observation exist while the other which based on causality tells us there in only one.
However, when we role dice in a casino most do not think there are six of them out there waiting for the dice to tell us which one we will occupy after the roll. This is because the probability of getting a six is related to its physical interaction with properties of the table in the casino where it is rolled. This means the probability of getting a six is determined by the physical properties of the dice and the casino it occupies. In other words, the dice does not define the future of the casino the casino defines the future of the dice.
Similarly, just because Quantum mechanics defines outcome of an observation in terms of probabilities would not mean all the of the predicted futures exist if the probability of a specific outcome is caused by a physical interaction of the wave-particle duality of existence with the universe it occupies. In other words, like the dice, it is possible the wave-particle duality of existence does not define the future of the universe the universe defines the future of its wave-particle component.
However, to understand how this is possible one would have to show the probability of a specific outcome of an observation is related to the interaction of the wave-particle duality of existence and the space it occupies.
For example, in the article “Why is energy/mass quantized?” Oct. 4, 2007 it was shown the wave-particle duality of existence defined by quantum mechanics can be derived by extrapolating the laws of classical resonance in a three-dimensional environment to an energy wave on a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a time dimension.
Briefly it showed the four conditions required for resonance to occur in a classical environment, an object, or substance with a natural frequency, a forcing function at the same frequency as its natural frequency, the lack of a damping frequency and the ability for the substance to oscillate spatial would occur in an environment consisting of four-dimensional space-time.
The existence of four-dimensional space-time would give an energy wave the ability to oscillate spatially on a "surface" the third spatial dimension with respect to the time dimension thereby fulfilling one of the requirements for classical resonance to occur.
These oscillations would be caused by an event such as the decay of a subatomic particle or the shifting of an electron in an atomic orbital. This would force the "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold to oscillate with the frequency associated with the energy of that event.
The oscillations caused by such an event would serve as forcing function allowing a resonant system or "structure" to be established space.
Therefore, these oscillations in a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold would meet the requirements mentioned above for the formation of a resonant system or "structure" in four-dimensional space-time if one extrapolated them to that environment.
Classical mechanics tells us the energy of a resonant system can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency.
Hence, these resonant systems in four-dimensional space-time would be responsible for particle property of existence in the space-time environment of Einstein.
Yet one can also define the boundary conditions responsible for a creating the resonant system or "structure" that earlier defined a particle.
For example, in our three-dimensional world, a point on the two-dimensional surface of paper is confined to that surface. However, that surface can oscillate up or down with respect to three-dimensional space.
However, the edge of the paper provides a boundary that reflects those oscillation back on itself, thereby creating a resonant wave on the surface of the paper.
Similarly, an energy wave of three-dimensional space would be confined to it however, it could, similar to the surface of the paper oscillate “up” or “down” while moving through time.
However, when it is prevented from moving thought time either by being observed or encountering an object or particle that wave energy will be reflected back on itself, thereby creating a resonant wave on the "surface" three-dimensional space,
In other words, if the wave component of quantum existence is prevented from moving unhindered through time either by an observation or by an interaction with a particle or object it will create a resonant system or structure that defined the quantum properties of existence in the article "Why is energy/mass quantized?".
This shows how, one can derive the wave-particle duality of quantum existence in terms of an interaction of space with time.
The final step in answering the question of why the future is what it is requires one to show how the quantum mechanical wave-particle duality of existence interacts with space to create the future in terms of probabilities.
One can use the analogy of energy of a vibrating or oscillating ball on a rubber diaphragm and how the magnitude of those vibrations would would be greatest at the focal point of those vibrations and decrease as one move away from them.
Similarly, if the assumption that wave properties of a quantum existence represents vibrations or oscillations in a "surface" of three-dimensional space, is correct the magnitude of those oscillations would be greatest at the focal point of and decreases as one moves away from it.
However, as the article, mentioned earlier “Why is energy/mass quantized?” showed the particle property of existence is a result of a resonant structure formed on the "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold by its interaction with the time dimension.
Yet the science of Wave Mechanics tells us resonance would most probably occur on the surface of the rubber sheet were the magnitude of the vibrations is greatest and would diminish as one move away from that point.
Similarly, the resonant structure that article associated with a particle property of existence would most probably be found were the magnitude of the vibrations in a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold is greatest and would diminish as one move away from that point.
In other words, one can define the future of the quantum mechanical wave-particle duality of existence in terms a causal interaction between it and the universe it occupies.
Additionally, this shows why defining the outcome of an observation of the wave-particle duality of existence as quantum mechanics does in terms of probabilities does not mean all the of those predicted futures exist. This is because similar to the dice mentioned earlier the probability of a specific future is caused by a physical interaction of it with the universe it occupies.
In other words, the reason why the future is what it is is because the wave-particle duality of existence does not define the future of the universe the universe defines the future of its wave-particle component.
Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2020