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The Big Bang theory suggests that matter and antimatter should have been produced in equal quantities.  Since collisions between matter and antimatter result in their mutual annihilation there should not be any ordinary matter, and its antimatter equivalent left in the universe.  However, it is obvious this did not happen because no galaxies or intergalactic clouds of antimatter have yet been detected that have the ability to offset the observed quantity of matter in the universe.  Therefore, it looks as if matter won out over antimatter.

One reason given for this is that soon after the big bang, a slight asymmetry developed between matter and antimatter.

However no one has be able to give define a physical mechanism that could be responsible for this even though physicists suspect it may be due to a charge-parity (CP) violation which would have allowed normal matter to prevail over antimatter.
Yet Einstein’s may have given us a clue as to what could cause this violation  when he defined the quantity of mass in a given volume of space-time in terms of a displacement or curvature in it.

However it is easier to understand why if one reformulates his space-time theories in terms of four *spatial* dimensions.

(The reasons will become obvious later.)
 
Einstein give us the ability to do this when he defined the geometric properties of mass in a space-time when he used the equation E=mc^2 to derive the balance between it and energy because by using the constant velocity of light he provided a method of converting a unit of  time he associated with energy to a unit of mass we believe he would have associated with space.  Additionally because the velocity of light is constant he also defined a one to one quantitative correspondence between his space-time universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.

The fact that one can use Einstein’s equations to qualitatively and quantitatively redefine the curvature in space-time he associated with energy in terms of four *spatial* dimensions is one bases for assuming, as was done in the article “Defining energy?” Nov 27, 2007 that all forms of energy including  that associated with matter and antimatter can be derived in terms of a spatial displacement in a “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

This as mentioned earlier this gives one the ability to understand the mechanism responsible for the asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the early universe because it provides a “central line” in three-dimensional space which can be used to compare the properties of matter and antimatter on different sides of it with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

In other words it allows one define the asymmetry between the energy/mass in a matter / antimatter system as being the result of a different property of oppositely directed displacements in a “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension because one can define the energy/mass associated with the matter component of a particle in terms of  downward directed curvature in a “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension while defining those of an anti-particle in terms of a upwardly directed curvature with respect a “central line” in three-dimensional space.

As was mentioned earlier the article “Defining energy?” Nov 27, 2007, one can derive the quantity of energy/mass in a system in terms of the magnitude of a displacement in a “surface” of a three- dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.  Therefore, the total energy of a particle / anti-particle system would be equal to the sum of their relative displacements.

This means one can define particle antiparticle annihilation in terms of the “upward” directed curvature in a “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold associated with an antiparticle “filling in” the equal but oppositely directed “downward” curvature associated with a particle while defining the energy released when they do so in terms of the sum of their oppositely directed curvatures.

However, this also provides an explanation of the why there is more matter than antimatter in there universe

As was mentioned earlier, one can derive the energy/mass of a particle in terms of a “downward” directed displacement in that “surface” with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension while the energy/mass of an antiparticle in terms of an “upward” directed one in that same surface. 

But this indicates on average it would require less energy to form a particle than an antiparticle for the same reason that it takes less energy to fill a bucket with water by pushing it down below the waters surface than it does by lifting the water into a bucket that is above its surface because the one above the surface is at a higher gravitational potential’  

Therefore, there would be some energy left over if an equal number of particles and antiparticles were annihilated.  This left over energy is responsible of energy/mass of particles presently in the universe.

Additionally it defines in terms of a physical mechanism why there may be a charge-parity (CP) violation in matter and antimatter formation because it shows that even though the charges associated with matter and anti matter particles are equal and opposite their combined energy is not.

However, the reason this left over energy/mass takes the form of a particle and not an anti-particle is because the relative properties of energy/mass means it can be defined in terms of a reference frame that would result in it being called particle instead of an antiparticle.

This defines the mechanism in terms of the geometry of four dimensional space-time or four *spatial* dimensions for the asymmetry between particles and antiparticles and why there should be more particles than antiparticles left over after the big bang even though they were produced in equal numbers.

It should be remember that Einstein’s genius allows us to choose whether to describe the properties of mass in either a space-time environment or one consisting of four *spatial* dimension when he defined the geometry of space-time in terms of the constant velocity of light.

Later Jeff

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2015

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