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In 1933 Fritz Zwicky a Swiss astronomer, was trying to measure the mass of a galactic cluster (a group of several galaxies) using two different methods. He tried to infer this mass from the speed of the galaxies. Just like kids on a merry-go-round have to hold on to avoid being ejected, galaxies are held together in a spinning galactic cluster by the gravitational force provided by the matter it contains because if there were not enough matter to create this force, the galaxies would simply scatter.

He then compared his result with the mass evaluated from the light the galaxies shed. He realized that there was a lot more matter in the cluster than what was visible or baryonic matter. This matter of an unknown type generated a gravitational field without emitting light. Hence its name, dark matter.

What makes this observation so puzzling is up until now no one has been able to define the origins of the energy/mass responsible for this gravitational tug even though some of the greatest minds of the scientific community have spent close to a century trying to.
This is because modern science assumes all mass exists in particle form while observations those galactic clusters indicate it only comprise approximately 5 to 10% of the mass required to account for the total gravitational force or “tug” in the universe.

However, the fact that 90 to 95% of the mass of the universe is invisible even with the recent advancements in particle detection technology suggests that it may be made up of a continuous or non-particle field of energy/mass

One may question the wisdom of hypothesizing that this only on the fact that we have been unable to detect the particles that could be responsible for it,

However, there are numerous other observations suggesting its existence.

For example Louis de Broglie was the first to predict its existence when he theorized that all particles have a wave component because there must be a continuous field of energy/mass available to support the wave properties of the smallest possible particle.

The fact all particles exhibit the diffraction pattern associated with a wave also suggest its existence because waves are by definition continuous therefore, there must exist a continuous field of energy/mass to support their diffraction pattern.

However the strongest argument that can be made for its existence is that one can explain and predict the quantum mechanical properties of energy/mass by assuming as was done in the article “Why is energy/mass quantized?” that they are a result of a resonant system formed by the matter wave in a continuous non-quantized form of energy/mass.

Briefly it showed the four conditions required for resonance to occur in a classical environment, an object, or substance with a natural frequency, a forcing function at the same frequency as the natural frequency, the lack of a damping frequency and the ability for the substance to oscillate spatial would occur in a matter wave moving in four *spatial* dimensions.

The existence of four *spatial* dimensions would give a matter wave the ability to oscillate spatially on a “surface” between a third and fourth *spatial* dimensions thereby fulfilling one of the requirements for classical resonance to occur.

These oscillations would be caused by an event such as the decay of a subatomic particle or the shifting of an electron in an atomic orbital.  This would force the “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension to oscillate with the frequency associated with the energy of that event.

However, the oscillations caused by such an event would serve as forcing function allowing a resonant system or “structure” to be established in four spatial dimensions.

As was shown in that article these resonant systems in four *spatial* dimensions are responsible for its quantum mechanical properties.

Additionally it also tells us why in terms of the physical properties four dimensional space-time or four *spatial* dimensions an electron cannot fall into the nucleus is because, as was shown in that article all energy is contained in four dimensional resonant systems. In other words the energy released by an electron “falling” into it would have to manifest itself in terms of a resonate system. Since the fundamental or lowest frequency available for a stable resonate system in either four dimensional space-time or four spatial dimension corresponds to the energy of an electron it becomes one of the fundamental energy units of the universe.

However, the physical properties astronomers have observed in “Dark Matter” would share the same physical properties as a continuous non-quantized energy/mass component of space because they are both composed of energy/mass and therefore would generate gravity, which would influence the orbits of stars in galaxies.  However because it is a continuous it would not be detectable by modern instrumentation because they are only calibrated to detect energy/mass in its particle form.

Therefore, the observations regarding quantum mechanical properties of energy/mass and the wave properties of particle predicted Louis de Broglie suggests the observed properties of “Dark Matter” may be the result of a continuous energy/mass component of space.

In the upcoming weeks and months this blog will present many more observations that support the existence of a continuous non-quantized field of mass that will make you question the assumption made by many physicists that all energy/mass is in particle form.

So please remember to stop by and visit for more insight into the true nature of “gravitation tug” associated with Dark Matter.

Later Jeff

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2007

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