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Dark matter is a form of matter which is thought to account for approximately 85% of the matter in the universe and about a quarter of its total mass–energy density or about 2.241×10?27 kg/m3. Its presence is implied in a variety of astrophysical observations, including the gravitational affects has on the obits of stars in galaxies which cannot be explained by accepted theories of gravity unless more matter is present than can be seen. The reason it is called dark because it does not appear to interact with the electromagnetic field, which means it does not absorb, reflect or emit electromagnetic radiation, and is therefore difficult to detect.

However, we disagree that it cannot be explained by accepted theories of gravity because Einstein defined it in terms of the “depth” of a gravity well or distortion in the “surface” of space-time caused by the energy density of an environment and NOT on existence of visible of baryonic matter. This means the energy of electromagnetic fields and photons along with that associated with visible matter must be taken consideration when determining its energy density and therefore the depth of its gravity well in space.

In other words, according to Einstein the energy of all forms of energy including photons in the universe must contribute along with the visible matter to define its total gravitation potential.

This suggest the reason it does not appear to interact with the electromagnetic field is because it is an electromagnetic field.

Some might say if this were true its gradational affects would be observable because they would affect planetary orbits. In other words, because we do not observe their affects on the orbits of planets, they could not contribute to a solar systems gravitational potential. However, the direction of the gravitational potential of photons, magnetic fields and their rotation in a star is opposite to that of visible matter because it prevents it from collapsing or sinking to the bottom of its gravity well. This would be analogous to a jar of water and oil. One could say the water prevents oil from sinking to the bottom because it is more buoyant or its directional energy is opposite to that of the water. Therefore, it determines how deep the oil is below the top of the jar. However, the total depth of the water and oil is determined by adding their individual heights above the bottom of the jar.

Similarly, because the gravitational potential of photons and the other forms of energy mentioned earlier is oppositely directed from that of the visible matter in a solar system it prevents its energy from sinking to the bottom of its gravity well. However, the total depth of its gravity well would be determined by adding the height of the gravitational energy of the those other forms of energy to the visible matter. This tells us the depth of the gravity well of a solar system that affects the orbits of planets would be offset by the gravitational potential of that energy. In other words, the reasons why we do not observe their affects on planetary orbits is because the gravity well they occupy will have the same offset as their suns they are orbiting.

The reasons why gravitational affects of that energy can be observed in the orbits of individual stars in galaxies is because they are not gravitational bound to it they are interacting with the total gravitational energy of each solar system they encounter. This would be analogous to someone measuring the height of the water and oil from outside the jar verses in side it. One outside the jar would add the height to the oil to water to get its total height while one inside it would measure it from the oil water line. Similarly. if one views the gravity well of a solar system from outside one would have to measure the contribution provided by both the visible matter and photons or electrometric energy to determine its depth. However, if one was part of a solar system or inside the jar so to speak one would measure its gravity well from the level of the photons energy.

In other words, one would have to double the energy density and therefore the gravitational force of the visible matter if you were to measure it form a reference frame that was not gravitational bound to another object.

This suggest another major contributor to dark matter would be the rotational energy of the stars orbiting a galactic center because it also adds to the energy density of the space they occupy. It would be considered Dark Matter because similar to the energy mentioned above their rotational energy is balanced by the galaxies gravitational energy and therefore would cause its gravity well to be offset. In other words, not only do you have to double the energy density that is contributed by the visible matter in stars because, as was shown earlier it is offset by at least an equal amount of the energy mentioned above, you must also add the rotational energy of the visible matter and dark matter component in the stars to determine the dark matter content of galaxies because it also causes the gravity well associated with the galaxies to be offset with respect to another one that is not gravitational bound to to its center.  The fact that galaxies are also contained in galactic clusters means you must also consider the energy density contributed by their rotation energy the to determine their dark matter content because it is also causes the gravity well associated with their visible matter to be offset with respect to other clusters.

It should be remember, Einstein defined the depth of a gravity well in space in terms of the absolute value of its  energy density. Therefore, all forms of energy including visible mass, photons and orbital energy of all objects in the universe will contribute to it.

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan Dec. 2020

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