because it can stop the collapse of matter no matter how massive an object is.

Einstein told us a gravitational field causes time to dilate and in 1915,Karl Schwarzschild proposed based on Einstein theories the gravitational field of a star greater than approximately 2.0 times a solar mass would stop the movement of time. Additionally, it is assumed that his solution identified a radius for any given mass, known as the Schwarzschild radius, where, if that mass could be compressed to fit within that radius, no known force or degeneracy pressure could stop it from continuing to collapse into a gravitational singularity or black hole. Thus, where the radius of the body is less than its Schwarzschild radius, everything, even photons of light, must inevitably fall into the central body called a singularity or a one-**dimensional** object in space-time.

**However, according to Einstein there is one "force or degeneracy pressure" that will stop it from continuing to collapse into a gravitational singularity and that is time. **

To understand how and why one must analyze how he defined the relativistic properties of space-time and how it interacts with matter in a gravitational field.

For example, as a star contacts and its circumference decreases, the time dilation on its surface will increase. At a certain point called the event horizon the contraction of that star will produce a gravitational field strong enough to stop the movement of time. Therefore, the critical circumference defined by Karl Schwarzschild is a boundary in space where time stops relative to the space outside of that boundary.

However, the existence of a singularity mentioned earlier is based on the assumption that time continues to move for matter even after it has past the event horizon of a black hole.

Yet, this is a direct contradiction of the relativistic properties of time as described in Einstein theories.

In Kip S. Thorne book "Black Holes and Time Warps", he describes how in the winter of 1938-39 Robert Oppenheimer and Hartland Snyder computed the details of a stars collapse into a black hole using the concepts of General Relativity. On page 217 he describes what the collapse of a star would look like, form the viewpoint of an external observer who remains at a fixed circumference instead of riding inward with the collapsing stars matter. They realized the collapse of a star as seen from that reference frame would begin just the way every one would expect. "Like a rock dropped from a rooftop the stars surface falls downward slowly at first then more and more rapidly. However, according to the relativistic formulas developed by Oppenheimer and Snyder as the star nears its critical circumference the shrinkage would slow to a crawl to an external observer because of the time dilatation associated with the relative velocity of the star’s surface. The smaller the circumference of a star gets the more slowly it appears to collapse because the time dilation predicted by Einstein increases as the speed of the contraction increases until it becomes frozen at the critical circumference.

However, the time measured by the observer who is riding on the surface of a collapsing star will not be dilated because he or she is moving at the same velocity as its surface.

*Therefore, the proponents of singularities say the contraction of a star can continue until it becomes a singularity because time has not stopped on its surface even though it has stopped with respect to an observer who remains at fixed circumference to that star.*

But one would have to draw a different conclusion if one viewed time dilation in terms of the gravitational field of a collapsing star.

Einstein showed that time is dilated by a gravitational field. Therefore, the time dilation on the surface of a star will increase relative to an external observer as it collapses because, as mentioned earlier gravitational forces at its surface increase as its circumference decrease.

This means, as it nears its critical circumference its shrinkage slows with respect to an external observer who is outside of the gravitation field because its increasing strength causes a slowing of time on its surface. The smaller the star gets the more slowly it appears to collapse because the gravitational field at its surface increase until time becomes frozen for the external observer at the critical circumference.

Therefore, the observations of an external observer would make using conceptual concepts of Einstein’s theory regarding time dilation caused by the gravitational field of a collapsing star would be identical to those predicted by Robert Oppenheimer and Hartland Snyder in terms of the velocity of its contraction.

**However, it also tells us, the force of time is stronger that the gravitational forces of a black hole with respect to all external observers because when it freezes it prevents the further gravitational collapse of matter beyond the critical circumference with respect to them.**

However, Einstein developed his Special Theory of Relativity based on the equivalence of all inertial reframes which he defined as frames that move freely under their own inertia neither "pushed not pulled by any force and therefore, continue to move always onward in the same uniform motion as they began".

This means that one can view the contraction of a star with respect to the inertial reference frame that, according to Einstein exists in the exact center of the gravitational field of a collapsing star.

(Einstein would consider this point an inertial reference frame with respect to the gravitational field of a collapsing star because at that point the gravitational field on one side will be offset by the one on the other side. Therefore, a reference frame that existed at that point would not be pushed or pulled relative to the gravitational field and would move onward with the same motion as that gravitational field.)

(However some have suggested that a singularity would form in a black hole if the collapse of a star was not symmetrical with respect to its center. In other words if one portion of its surface moved at a higher velocity than another towards its center it could not be consider an inertial reference frame because it would be pushed or pulled due to the differential gravitational force cause be its uneven collapse. But the laws governing time dilation in his theory tell us that time would move slower for those sections of the surface that are moving faster allowing the slower ones to catch up. This also tells us that every point on the surface of star will be at the event horizon at the exact same time and therefore its center will not experience any pushing or pulling at the time of its formation and therefore could be considered an inertial reference frame.)

The surface of collapsing star from this viewpoint would look according to the field equations developed by Einstein as if the shrinkage slowed to a crawl as the star neared its critical circumference because of the increasing strength of the gravitation field at the star’s surface relative to its center. The smaller it gets the more slowly it appears to collapse because the gravitational field at its surface increases until time becomes frozen at the critical circumference.

Therefore, because time stops or becomes frozen at the critical circumference for all observers who are at the center of the clasping mass the contraction cannot continue from their perspectives.

*However, it also tells us, the force of time is stronger than the gravitational forces of a black hole with respect to all observers located at its center because when it freezes with respect to them it prevents the further collapse of matter beyond the critical circumference.*

However, Einstein in his general theory showed that a reference frame that was free falling in a gravitational field could also be considered an inertial reference frame.

As mentioned earlier many physicists assume that the mass of a star implodes when it reaches the critical circumference. Therefore, an observer on the surface of that star will be in free fall with respect to the gravitational field of that star when as it passes through its critical circumference.

This indicates that point on the surface of an imploding star, according to Einstein’s theories could also be considered an inertial reference frame because an observer who is on the riding on it will not experience the gravitational forces of the collapsing star.

However, according to the Einstein theory, as a star nears its critical circumference an observer who is on its surface will perceive the differential magnitude of the gravitational field relative to an observer who is in an external reference frame or, as mentioned earlier is at its center to be increasing. Therefore, he or she will perceive time in those reference frames that are not on its surface slowing to a crawl as it approaches the critical circumference. The smaller it gets the more slowly time appears to move with respect to an external reference frame until it becomes frozen at the critical circumference.

Therefore, time would be infinitely dilated or stopped with respect to all reference frames that are not on the surface of a collapsing star from the perspective of someone who was on that surface.

However, the contraction of a star’s surface must be measured with respect to the external reference frames in which it is contracting. But as mentioned earlier Einstein’s theories indicate time in its external environment would become infinitely dilated or stop when the surface of a collapsing star reaches its critical circumference.

Therefore because time stops or becomes frozen at the critical circumference with respect to the external environment of an observer who riding on its surface the contraction cannot continue because motion cannot occur in an environment where time has stopped.

**However, it also tells us, the force of time is stronger that the gravitational forces of a black hole with respect to an observer who is riding on it because when it freezes with respect to its external environment it prevents further the collapse beyond the critical circumference.**

This means, as was just shown according to Einstein’s concepts because time and movement stops on the surface of a collapsing star from the perspective of all observers when viewed in terms of gravitational forces, the collapse of matter must stop at the critical circumference. This contradicts the assumption made by many that the implosion would continue for an observer who was riding on its surface.

In other words,** **based on the conceptual principles of Einstein’s theories relating to time dilation caused by the gravitational field of a collapsing star it cannot implode to a singularity as many physicists believe because it causes time to freeze at its critical circumference with respect to all observers. Therefore it must maintain a quantifiable minimum volume which is equal to the one defined by Karl Schwarzschild.

This tells us either the conceptual ideas developed by Einstein are incorrect or there must be an alternative solution to the field equations based on the General Theory of Relativity that many physicists used to predict the existence of a singularity because as has just been shown the theoretical predications made by them with respect to the time dilation associated with a gravitational field tell us it cannot exist. Therefore, according to his theories a black hole must have a solid surface at the event horizon which is made up of matter in its most basic form because it cannot be compacted any more.

*However, it also tells us time is a force more powerful than the gravitational field of a black hole because it has the ability to freeze the collapse of matter at its event horizon no matter how massive it is.*

In other words, time is the most powerful in the universe because it can stop the collapse of matter in a black holes.

There can be no other conclusion if one accepts the validity Einstein Relativistic Theories and of the physical observations of the time dilation associated with a gravitational field.

Later Jeff

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2019

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