We have shown throughout this blog and its companion book “The Reality of the Fourth *Spatial* Dimension” there would be several theoretical advantages to defining the universe in terms of four *spatial* dimensions instead of four-dimensional space-time.

One is that it would give cosmologists the ability to explain the origins of the Big Bang in terms of the classical properties of energy/mass.

The Big Bang** **theory postulates the universe emerged from what is called a singularity and is presently expanding from the tremendously hot dense environment associated with it.Â Additionally it assumes the momentum generated by the heat of that environment is sustaining the expansion.

However, it has difficulty explaining where the energy originated to cause its expansion.

Granted some cleaver scientists have come up with a mathematical model of what could be responsible for it but it has no basis in observations.

For example some will try to convince you that a mathematical construct called an inflation field is responsible.Â However, it seems a bit contrived because even though an inflation field may be responsible for the universe’s expansion there is no observational evidence supporting its existence.

The reason this presents a problem is because the law of conservation of energy/mass says that in a closed system it cannot be created or destroyed.Â Since, by definition our universe is a closed system according to it energy/mass cannot be created or destroyed in it.

However proponents of the big bang model assume that the energy powering the universe’s expansion came from a tremendously hot dense environment yet it cannot explain where the energy found in that environment came from.Â They would like us to believe that its was created out of nothing which would be a violation of the laws of conservation of energy/mass.

Yet there is another explanation for origin of our expanding universe that does not violate any of the accepted physical laws and makes a great deal more sense than assuming its expansive energy originated out of nothing.

We know from observations the equation E=mc^2 defines the equivalence between mass and energy in an environment and since mass is associated with the attractive properties of gravity it also tells us because of this equivalence the kinetic energy associated with the universe’s expansion also posse those attractive properties.Â However the law of conservation of energy/mass tells us that in a closed system the creation of kinetic energy cannot exceed the gravitational energy associated with the total energy/mass in the universe.

However, not all of the energy of associated with the universeâ€™s expansion is directed towards it because of the random motion of its energy/mass components. For example, observations indicate that some stars and galaxies are moving towards not away us. Therefore, not all of the energy present at the time of its origin is directed towards its expansion.

As mentioned earlier the law of conservation of energy/mass tells us that the kinetic energy of the universeâ€™s energy/mass cannot exceed its gravitational contractive properties. Therefore, at some point in time the gravitation contractive potential of its energy/mass must exceed the kinetic energy of its expansion because as just mentioned not all of its kinetic energy is directed towards its expansion. Therefore at that point, in time the universe will have to enter a contractive phase.

**Some may question the idea that the sum of the gravitational energy of a closed system must always be large enough to prevent an object from being completely free of its influence.Â However Einstein theories tell a different story.Â For example they tell us all energy including that of motion is interchangeable with mass.Â In other words as a body losses its energy of motion due to gravitational interactions; its mass increases while at the same time the gravitational force of even tiniest object extends to infinity.Â Therefore because of this interchangeability of mass and the energy; the gravitational force between all objects in motion with respect to each other must always be increasing no matter how far a part.Â In other words given enough time the gradational field must always prevail in all closed systems.Â There can be no other conclusion if one accepts Einstein theories. In other words he tell us the reason our universe will not continue expand forever is because by definition it is closed system.**

(Many physicists would disagree because recent observations suggest that a force called Dark energy is causing the expansion of the universe accelerate. Therefore they believe that its expansion will continue forever. However, as was shown in the article “Dark Energy and the evolution of the universe” Oct. 1, 2012 if one assumes the law of conservation of mass / energy is valid, as we have done here than the gravitational contractive properties of its mass equivalent will eventually have to exceed its expansive energy because as mentioned earlier kinetic energy also posses gravitational potential therefore there will be constant force opposing its accelerated expansion. Therefore the gravitational potential of Dark Energy must slow the rate of the acceleration and eventually allow gravity to take over and cause the universe to enter a contractive phase.Â There can be not other conclusion if one accepts the validity of the laws of thermodynamics and Einstein General Theory of Relativity.)

We know from observations that heat is generated when we compress a gas and that this heat creates pressure that opposes further contractions.

Similarly the contraction of the universe will create heat which will oppose its further contractions.

The velocity of contraction will increase until the momentum of the galaxies, planets, components of the universe equals the radiation pressure generated by the heat of its contraction.

At this point in time the total kinetic energy of the collapsing universe would be equal and oppositely directed with respect to the radiation pressure associated with the heat of its collapse. From this point on the velocity of the contraction will slow due to the radiation pressure and be maintained by the momentum associated with the remaining mass component of the universe.

However, after a certain point in time the heat and radiation pressure generated by its contraction will become great enough to ionize the remaining mass and cause it to reexpand because the expansive forces associated with the radiation pressure caused by its collapse will exceed the contractive forces associated with its mass.

This will result in the universe entering an expansive phase and going through another age of recombination when the comic background radiation was emitted. The reason it will experience an age of recombination as it passes through each cycle is because the heat of its collapse would be great enough to completely ionize all forms of matter.

However, at some point in time the contraction phase will begin again because as mentioned earlier its kinetic energy cannot exceed the gravitational energy associated with the total mass/energy in the universe.

Since the universe is a closed system, the amplitude of the expansions and contractions will remain constant because the law of conservation of mass/energy dictates the total mass and energy in a closed system remains constant.

This results in the universe experiencing in a never-ending cycle of expansions and contractions of equal magnitudes.

Many cosmologists do not accept the cyclical scenario of expansion and contractions because they believe a collapsing universe would end in the formation of a singularity.Â However because the universe is by definition an isolated system the energy generated by its gravitational collapse cannot be radiated to another volume.Â Therefore the radiation pressure exerted by its collapse must eventually exceed momentum of its contraction.Â This would result in it entering an expansion phase before it could reach a singularity.Â This will cause the mass/energy of our three dimensional universe to oscillate around an extended volume and not collapse to a singularity.

This would be analogous to the how momentum of a mass on a spring causes it spring to stretch beyond its equilibrium point resulting it osculating around it.

There can be no other interoperation if one assumes the validity of the first law of thermodynamics and Einstein’s theories which states that the total energy of our three dimensional universe is defined its mass and the momentum of its components. Therefore, when one decreases the other must increase and therefore it must oscillate around a point in four spatial dimensions.

The reason a singularity can form in black hole is because it is not an isolate system therefore the thermal radiation associated with its collapse can be radiated into the surrounding space. Therefore, its collapse can continue because momentum of its mass can exceed the radiation pressure cause by its collapse in the volume surrounding a black hole.

If this theoretical model is valid the heat generated by the collapse of the universe* must* raise the temperature to a point where protons and neutrons would become dissociated into their component parts and electrons would be strip off all matter thereby making the universe opaque to radiation.Â It would remain that way until it entered the expansion phase and cooled enough to allow matter to recapture and hold on to them.Â This Age of Recombination, as cosmologists like to call it is when the Cosmic Background Radiation was emitted.

One could quantify this scenario by using the first law of thermodynamics to calculate the temperature of the universe when the radiation pressure generated by its gravitational collapse exceeds the momentum of that collapse and see if it if it great enough to cause the complete disassociation of the proton and neutron into their quark components as it must to account for their observed properties and that of the Cosmic back ground radiation.

This shows that one can derive the origins of the Big Bang in terms classical concepts of energy/mass instead of assuming as the proponents of the inflationary model do that it was created out of nothing.

Later Jeff

Copyright 2008 Jeffrey O’Callaghan