The Big Bang Theory is the leading explanation about how the universe began. At its simplest, it says the universe as we know it started with a singularity, then inflated over the next 13.8 billion years to the cosmos that we know today.

Because current instruments don’t allow astronomers to peer back at the universe’s birth, much of what we understand about the it comes from mathematical formulas and models. Astronomers can, however, see the “echo” of the expansion through a phenomenon known as the Cosmic Background Radiation.

The idea the universe was smaller in the beginning was supported by Edwin Hubble observation in1929 that it was expanding.

Later, a few physicists led by George Gamow a proponent of the Big Bang Model showed an expanding universe meant that it might have had its beginning in singularity or a very hot infinitely dense environment, which then expanded to generate the one we live in today.

They were able to show only radiation emitted approximately 300,000 years after the beginnings of the expansion should be visible today because before that time the universe was so hot that protons and electrons existed only as free ions making the universe opaque to radiation.

Additionally, they predicted this Cosmic Background Radiation would have cooled from several thousand degrees Kelvin back when it was created to 2.7 today due to the expansion of the universe. Many thought its discovery 1965 by Penzias and Wilson provided its verification

However, there was a problem with assuming the universe begin that way because an infinitely dense environment must have been, by definition homogeneous. Therefore, if the universe was homogeneous when it began it should still be.

But the existence of galactic clusters and the variations in the intensity of the Cosmic Background Radiation discovered by European Space Agency’s **Planck** space observatory showed the universe is not and therefore, was not homogeneous either now or at the time when it was emitted.

Many proponents of the big bang model assume that these “anisotropy” in the universe are caused by quantum fluctuations in the energy density of space. They define quantum fluctuations as a temporary change in the energy of space caused by the uncertainty principle.

However, there are CATASTROPHIC THEORETICAL errors in both assuming our universe originated from a singularity and the affects quantum fluctuations in the energy density of space would have on the evolution of the universe.

Einstein and observations of black holes tell us time moves slower as the energy density increases and will eventually stop if it becomes great enough. Additionally, Schwarzschild was able to use Einstein’s math to calculate the radius of a black hole where the energy density would be great enough to stop time which is LARGER than that of a singularity.

This tells us because expansion CANNOT occur in an environment where time has stopped there is a minimum radius the total energy content of the universe can occupy for time to move forward which IS larger than a singularity.

In other words, if the proponent of the big bang model had considered the effect energy density has on time, they would have realized that the universe could not have originated from a singularity.

Some may say that the energy density of expanding universe would not affect the rate at which time passes but they would be WRONG because Einstein’s tells us it would be related ONLY to its differential energy density. In other words, he tells us the rate at which time slows and where it would stop and prevent further expansion would be determined by the differential energy density between the center of its expansion and its outer edge. Therefore, similar to a black hole the universe would have an “event horizon” which would define its minimum volume before which no expansion could occur.

However, there is a similar error behind the assumption that quantum fluctuations are responsible for “anisotropy” in Cosmic Background Radiation because their energy density by definition would great enough to cause time to stop. Therefore, quantum fluctuations could not affect the evolution of the universe or be responsible for “anisotropy” in Cosmic Background Radiation because as was just mentioned evolution cannot occur in an environment where time has stopped.

Some might disagree because they say the energy in a singularity and that contained in a quantum fluctuation would be powerful enough to overcome the stopping of time predicted by Einstein mathematics. However, they would be WONG again because Einstein tells that when the energy density reaches a certain level time will stop. It does not say that an increase beyond that point will allow time to move again.

As was mentioned earlier, current instruments don’t allow astronomers to peer back at the universe’s birth, much of what we understand about its origin comes from theory and mathematical formulas.

However, we may be able to define the origin of the present universe in terms of its observable properties.

We still have not been able to determine if the universe will continue to expand indefinitely or if it will eventually collapse in on itself. However, if one assumes it does, one could develop a mathematically model which would allow for determining when the heat generated by its collapse would it cause it to re-expand. If it was found it was great enough to cause protons and electrons to exist only as free ions before the radiation pressure caused it to enter an expansion phase then another round of the Cosmic Background Radiation would be created.

This would also give one the ability to determine if the anisotropy in it COULD be the result of irregularities in its collapse based on observation of the irregularities that exist today

Putting it another way we could define the origin of the present universe and anisotropy” in Cosmic Background Radiation in terms of real time observations of the present universe which would be consistent with the theoretical predictions of Einstein.

The science of Astrophysics is base almost exclusively on observations. Therefore, the question they must ask themselves is “If we have two models for the origin of the universe that predict the same outcome which one should we assume is correct?” The one that make define its origins based on the observable properties of our present universe or one that defines it in terms of the unobservable properties of a singularity.

Copyright Jeffery O’Callaghan Nov. 2020

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