We have shown throughoutÂ this blog that it is more consistent with observations to define the universe in terms of four *spatial* dimensions instead of four-dimensional space-time.

The electrical properties of quarks are one of those observations.

In the article “Why is energy/mass quantized?“Â Oct. 4, 2007Â it was shown the properties of a particle could be derived in terms of a resonant system formed on “surface” a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

However, observations of particles indicate they are made up of distinct components called quarks of which there are six types, the UP/Down, Charm/Strange and Top/Bottom.Â The Up, Charm and Top have a fractional charge of 2/3.Â The Down, Strange and Bottom have a fractional charge of -1/3.Â Scientists have also determined that quarks can take on one of three different configurations they have designated by the colors red, blue, and green.

But if space was made up of four *spatial* dimensions one should be able to explain why quarks have a fractional charge and how they interact to form particles in terms of the geometry four *spatial* dimension.

The article Defining energy Nov. 26, 2007 showed it is possible to define all forms of energy including electrical in terms of a displacement in a “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

However, we as three-dimensional beings can only observe three of the four spatial dimensions.Â Therefore, the energy associated with a displacement in its “surface” with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension will be observed by us as being directed along that “surface”.Â However, because two of the three-dimensions we can observe are parallel to that surface we will observe it to have 2/3 of the total energy associated with that displacement and we will observe the other 1/3 as being directed along the signal dimension that is perpendicular to that surface.

This means the 2/3 fractional charge of the Up, Charm and Top may be related to the energy directed along a “surface” of a displaced three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a four *spatial* dimension while the -1/3 charge of The Down, Strange and Bottom may be associated with the energy that is directed perpendicular to that “surface”.

The reason why quarks come in three configurations or colors with a fractional charge of 1/3 or 2/3 may be because, as was shown in the article Embedded Dimensions Nov. 22, 2007 there are three ways the individual axis of three-dimensional space can be oriented with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.Â Therefore, the configuration or “colors” of each quark may be related to how its energy is distributed in three-dimensional space with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

However, it may also explain why it takes three quarks of different “colors” to form a particle because, as mentioned earlier one can define a particle in terms of a resonant system on a “surface” a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.Â If the colors of each quark represent the central axis associated with its charge then to form a stable resonate system would require three quarks that have different central axis to balance its energy with respect to the axes of three-dimensional space.Â A particle could not exist if two quarks have the same central axis or color because it would cause an energy imbalance along that axis.Â Therefore, a particle consisting of anything but quarks of three different colors would not stable.

This shows that it may be possible to define the electrical properties of quarks and how they combine to form particles in terms of the geometry of four *spatial* dimensions.

Later Jeff

Copyright 2009 Jeffrey O’Callaghan