Have you ever wondered why so many seeming rational scientists make irrational assumptions to explain why our universe behaves the way it does and why Einstein was unable see, as Robert Oerter pointed out in his book “The Theory of Almost Everything: the magic of Relativistic Quantum Electrodynamics or QED.

He tells us the reason may have been because it defines the charge around a solitary electron as being caused by spontaneous creation of virtual electron-positron pairs which then magically disappear. However being virtual means that they are very close to being something without actually being it. In others words according to QED the force between two charged particles is something that it is not.

I think most people would consider someone irrational if they tried to convince us the reason why they were late for work was because a swam of virtual or imaginary cars were blocking the road which disappeared after we showed up at work.

Shouldn’t we hold our scientists to the same degree of rationality?

Most who have studied the history of science are aware that Einstein was vehemently opposed to many of the fundamental components of quantum mechanics such as the existence of virtual particles. Granted even though he was able, in his General Theory of Relativity to derive the force of gravity in terms of the geometry of space and time he was unable to describe or define electromagnetism or charge separation in the same terms, as was documented by the American Institute of Physics.

“From before 1920 until his death in 1955, Einstein struggled to find laws of physics far more general than any known before. In his theory of relativity, the force of gravity had become an expression of the geometry of space and time. The other forces in nature, above all the force of electromagnetism, had not been described in such terms. But it seemed likely to Einstein that electromagnetism and gravity could both be explained as aspects of some broader mathematical structure. The quest for such an explanation — for a “unified field” theory that would unite electromagnetism and gravity, space and time, all together — occupied more of Einstein’s years than any other activity.

However the symmetry of the mathematics he used to define his space-time environment may enable us to use his theories to bring them together and define the “reality” of charged particles without the existence of virtual ones.

For example the fact that he used the constant velocity of light and the geometric properties of space-time to define the energy provides a method of converting a unit of time he associated with it to a unit of space associated with position. Additionally because the velocity of light is constant it allows for the defining of a one to one quantitative and qualitative correspondence between his space-time universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.

This change in perspective allows one to qualitatively and quantitatively redefine the curvature in space-time he associated with gravity in terms of four *spatial* dimensions and is bases for assuming, as was done in the article â€œDefining energy?â€ Nov 27, 2007 that all forms of energy including gravitational and electrical can be derived in terms of a spatial displacement in a â€œsurfaceâ€ of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

However this would have allowed Einstein to define and understand the forces associated with electromagnetic charge in terms of their spatial instead of time properties.

For example as was shown as was shown in the article “What is electromagnetism?“ Sept, 27 2007 one can derive the forces associated with the charge fluctuations in an electromagnetic wave in terms of the displacement caused by the “peaks” and “toughs” of a matter wave moving on the “surface” of a three dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

Briefly it showed it is possible to derive the properties of electromagnetism by extrapolating the laws of Classical Wave Mechanics in a three-dimensional environment to a matter wave moving on it

A wave on the two-dimensional surface of water causes a point on that surface to be become displaced or rise above or below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present. A force will be developed by the differential displacement of the surfaces, which will result in the elevated and depressed portions of the water moving towards or become “attracted” to each other and the surface of the water.

Similarly a matter wave on the “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension would cause a point on that “surface” to become displaced or rise above and below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present.

Therefore, classical wave mechanics, if extrapolated to four *spatial* dimensions tells us a force will be developed by the differential displacements caused by a matter wave moving on a “surface” of three-dimensional space with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension that will result in its elevated and depressed portions moving towards or become “attracted” to each other.

This defines the causality of the attractive forces of unlike charges associated with the electromagnetic wave component of a photon in terms of a force developed by a differential displacement of a point on a “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

However, it also provides a classical mechanism for understanding why similar charges repel each other because observations of water show that there is a direct relationship between the magnitudes of a displacement in its surface to the magnitude of the force resisting that displacement.

Similarly the magnitude of a displacement in a “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension caused by two similar charges will be greater than that caused by a single one. Therefore, similar charges will repel each other because the magnitude of the force resisting the displacement will be greater for two charges than it would be for a single charge.

One can define the causality of the electrical component of electromagnetic radiation in terms of the energy associated with the “peaks” and “troughs” of a matter wave that is directed perpendicular to its velocity vector while its magnetic component would be associated with the horizontal force developed by that perpendicular displacement.

However, Classical Mechanics tells us a horizontal force will be developed by that perpendicular or vertical displacement which will always be 90 degrees out of phase with it. This force is called magnetism.

This is analogous to how the vertical force pushing up of on mountain also generates a horizontal force, which pulls matter horizontally towards the apex of that displacement.

Einstein was unable to accomplish this in terms of four-dimensional space-time because time is only observe to move in one direction forwards and therefore could not support the bi-directional movement required to support the electromagnetic component of a matter wave moving on its “surface”.

However, as was shown above it also defines the forces associated charges and their separation in terms of the physical properties of the spatial dimensions without the need of assuming the existence of virtual or imaginary particles.

**In other words it shows that change particles and their associated forces can be explained and predicted in terms of their relative position with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension. **

Some would say that even if that were true it still cannot explain why those forces would be quantized.

However as was shown in the article in the article “Why is energy/mass quantized?” Oct. 4, 2007 can also derive the quantum mechanical properties of charges by extrapolating the physical properties of resonance in a three-dimensional environment to a matter wave moving on a “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

Briefly it showed the four conditions required for resonance to occur in a classical Newtonian environment, an object, or substance with a natural frequency, a forcing function at the same frequency as the natural frequency, the lack of a damping frequency and the ability for the substance to oscillate spatial would occur in one consisting of four spatial dimensions.

The existence of four *spatial* dimensions would give the “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold (the substance) the ability to oscillate spatially with respect to it thereby fulfilling one of the requirements for classical resonance to occur.

These oscillations would be caused by an event such as the decay of a subatomic particle or the shifting of an electron in an atomic orbital. This would force the “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension to oscillate with the frequency associated with the energy of that event.

Therefore, these oscillations on a “surface” of three-dimensional space, would meet the requirements mentioned above for the formation of a resonant system or “structure” in space.

Observations of a three-dimensional environment show the energy associated with resonant system can only take on the incremental or discreet values associated with a fundamental or a harmonic of the fundamental frequency of its environment.

Similarly the energy associated with resonant systems in four *spatial* dimensions could only take on the incremental or discreet values associated a fundamental or a harmonic of the fundamental frequency of its environment.

**In other words defining the quantum mechanical properties of energy/mass in terms of physical properties of four *spatial* dimensions eliminates the need to make irrational assumptions like the interaction of virtual with real particles is responsible for charges and their separation. **

It should be remember Einsteinâ€™s genius and the fact that he defined the geometry of space-time in terms of the constant velocity of light allows us to choose to define our universe as either a space-time environment or one consisting of four *spatial* dimension when. This interchangeability broadens the environment encompassed by his theories by making them applicable to both the spatial as well as the time properties of our universe giving us a new perspective on charges and their associated forces.

Latter Jeff

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2015