Here is an amazing fact: The matter we know of that makes up all stars and galaxies only accounts for 5% of the content of the universe. The rest is called Dark Matter. It does not interact with the electromagnetic force and therefore does not absorb, reflect or emit light, making it extremely hard to spot. In fact, researchers are only able to infer its existence only from the gravitational effect it has on visible matter, which outweighs the visible matter roughly six to one, making up about 27% of the universe.
There have been several proposed answers to what it is.
One proposed by "Quantum Field Theory of Interacting Dark Matter/Dark Energy: Dark Monodromies" suggests that Dark Matter is made up of heavy particles with masses which are very sensitive to the value of dark energy are strongly constrained. Quintessence-generated long range forces and radiative stability of the quintessence potential require that such dark matter and dark energy are completely decoupled. However, if dark energy and a fraction of dark matter are very light axions, they can have significant mixings which are radiatively stable and perfectly consistent with quantum field theory. Such models can naturally occur in multi-axion realizations of monodromies. The mixings yield interesting signatures which are observable and are within current cosmological limits but could be constrained further by future observations.
However, it not only defies logic but also common sense to assume that dark matter is made up of "heavy particles with masses" because one would think that a heavy particle would be easier to observe than lighter ones which we are able to observe.
For too long physicists have ignored common sense and logical arguments which are based on a perception of our observable universe such as assuming ""Dark Matter is made up of heavy particles" because if it was we should be able to observe it. They create all kinds of crazy ideas such "Quintessence-generated long range forces and radiative stability" to justify their arguments that do not have any bases in the reality of our observable world.
However physics by definition is an observational science. In other words physicists must not base their theoretical models only the of end results experiment but also on observing the processes by which those results were obtain.
For example Albert Einstein in his theory of Special Relativity, determined the laws of physics are the same for all non-accelerating observers by showing that space and time were interwoven into a single continuum known as space-time.
However as he worked on the equations defining gravity in his General Theory of Relativity, he realized that massive objects would cause a distortion or curvature in the space-time field of his Special Theory of Relativity. Imagine setting a large body in the center of a trampoline. The body would press down into the fabric of space-time causing it to dimple. A marble rolled around the edge would spiral inward toward the body, pulled in much the same way that the gravity of a planet pulls at rocks in space.
In other words Einstein based his theoretical conclusions that a curvature in space-time is responsible for gravity not only on his mathematics but on his observation of how objects in the world around him interact with their environment.
Additionally, in his General Theory of Relative he told us that energy and mass are interchangeable in terms of the field properties of a space-time environment and the equation E=mc^2. In other words he defined energy and mass in terms in terms of the continuous field properties he associated with a space-time environment. This suggests a portion of the missing mass found by Fritz Zwicky may be related to those field properties not what most associate with the mass of objects or particles.
Yet, for some it may be difficult to integrate the physical imagery provided by his theory to understand how a field consisting of space and time can have the properties of Dark Matter because time is not perceived by most as having the properties of matter. In other words because time does not have any observable physical properties it is difficult to form a physical image of how it can interact with the space to create matter.
But Einstein gave us the ability to develop more direct understand how and why those field properties can be responsible for Dark Matter when he used the equation E=mc^2 and the constant velocity of light to define the geometric properties of mass in a space-time universe. This is because it provided a method of converting a unit of time he associated with energy in space-time to unit of space one can associate with mass in four *spatial* dimensions. Additionally because the velocity of light is constant he also defined a one to one quantitative correspondence between his space-time universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.
In other words he gave us the ability to understand how the field properties of four dimensional space-time can be responsible for Dark Matter in terms of a physical image based solely on the observable properties of the spatial dimensions.
The fact that one can use Einstein’s equations to qualitatively and quantitatively redefine the field properties of a space-time environment in terms of four *spatial* dimensions means as was done in the article “Defining energy?” Nov 27, 2007 that one can also define the gravity in terms of a spatial displacement in its field properties.
In other words according to Einstein mathematics if the continuous field properties of a three-dimensional space manifold were displaced or offset with respect to a fourth *spatial* and or time dimension a gravitational field would be created.
For example the potential energy of the water in a dam over a flat "surface" is determined by its height with respect to that surface. However some of its energy is stored in the environment it occupies because the pressure it exerts on the surface of the earth where it was located will cause that surface to become depressed or offset with respect to where it was before it was filled. Therefore, to accurately measure its full potential energy one would not only have to measure how much energy is stored in the water but how much is stored in the offset it creates in its environment. In other words one cannot get an accurate measure of the potential energy of the water in a dam by just measuring its height above the bottom because one must add to that energy is stored in the in the environment it is occupying.
Similarly Einstein’s space-time mathematics tells us the same thing, that the gravity is not only caused by the quantity of matter in a given volume but also the magnitude of the energy store in its environment.
Unfortunately we are only able to measure gravitational force from the center of the mass of planets, stars, and galaxies which means we are only measuring its potential energy in terms of the "height" with respect to the "flat surface" of space-time before the object was there. However as was just mentioned Einstein tells us that some of their gravitational energy will be stored in the offset they cause in the space-time environment they are occupying. Therefore to get a true sense of the total gravitational energy in the universe one must take into account the energy stored the fabric of space.
This energy stored in the fabric of space-time created by matter is responsible for the gravitational energy associated with Dark Matter. The reason it does not interact with light or is Dark is because it is not created by matter but by the energy stored in the continuous flied properties of space-time, the medium light travels on.
Copy right Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2019
The Road to Unifying
The Road to Unifying
The Road to Unifying