Absolutely not, because those laws as proposed by Einstein prevent that from happening.

The existence of a singularity at the center of a black hole is often taken as proof that the theory of general relativity has broken down, which is perhaps not unexpected as it occurs in conditions where quantum effects should become important.

In the center of a black hole many believe a gravitational singularity occurs which contains a huge mass in an infinitely small space. In other words density and gravity become infinite while space-time curves infinitely. This would result in the laws of physics as we know them cease to operate. As the eminent American physicist ** Kip Thorne **describes it, it is "the point where all laws of physics break down".

**U****nfortunately, everyone including Kip Thorne is wrong because as was just mentioned the laws proposed by Einstein governing the existence of space-time tell us that a singularity can never repeat never exist in a black hole.**

The existence of a singularity is based on a mathematical solution developed in 1915, by Karl Schwarzschild who proposed based on Einstein theories the gravitational field of a star greater than approximately 2.0 times a solar mass would stop the movement of time. Additionally, it is assumed that his solution identified a radius for any given mass, known as the Schwarzschild radius, where, if that mass could be compressed to fit within that radius, no known force or degeneracy pressure could stop it from continuing to collapse into a gravitational singularity or black hole. Thus, where the radius of the body is less than its Schwarzschild radius, everything, even photons of light, must inevitably fall into the central body called a singularity or a one-**dimensional** object in space-time.

However, the according to the relativistic laws Einstein proposed for his space-time universe the time dilatation it associated with a gravitational field would prevent matter form collapsing beyond the event horizon of a black hole to form a singularity .

**In other words, the very theory is used to predict the existence of a black hole also prevents the formation of a singularity and the laws of physics, as defined by Einstein from breaking down in its space-time environmen**t.

To understand why one must analyze how he define the relativistic properties of space-time and how it interacts with matter in a gravitational field.

For example, as a star contacts and its circumference decreases, the time dilation on its surface will increase. At a certain point called the event horizon the contraction of that star will produce a gravitational field strong enough to stop the movement of time. Therefore, the critical circumference defined by Karl Schwarzschild is a boundary in space where time stops relative to the space outside of that boundary.

However, the existence of a singularity mentioned earlier is based on the assumption that time continues to move for matter even after it has past the event horizon of a black hole.

However, this is a direct contraction of the relativistic properties of time as described in Einstein theories.

In Kip S. Thorne book "Black Holes and Time Warps", he describes how in the winter of 1938-39 Robert Oppenheimer and Hartland Snyder computed the details of a stars collapse into a black hole using the concepts of General Relativity. On page 217 he describes what the collapse of a star would look like, form the viewpoint of an external observer who remains at a fixed circumference instead of riding inward with the collapsing stars matter. They realized the collapse of a star as seen from that reference frame would begin just the way every one would expect. "Like a rock dropped from a rooftop the stars surface falls downward slowly at first then more and more rapidly. However, according to the relativistic formulas developed by Oppenheimer and Snyder as the star nears its critical circumference the shrinkage would slow to a crawl to an external observer because of the time dilatation associated with the relative velocity of the star’s surface. The smaller the circumference of a star gets the more slowly it appears to collapse because the time dilation predicted by Einstein increases as the speed of the contraction increases until it becomes frozen at the critical circumference.

However, the time measured by the observer who is riding on the surface of a collapsing star will not be dilated because he or she is moving at the same velocity as its surface.

Therefore, the proponents of singularities say the contraction of a star can continue until it becomes a singularity because time has not stopped on its surface even though it has stopped with respect to an observer who remains at fixed circumference to that star.

But one would have to draw a different conclusion if one viewed time dilation in terms of the gravitational field of a collapsing star.

Einstein showed that time is dilated by a gravitational field. Therefore, the time dilation on the surface of a star will increase relative to an external observer as it collapses because, as mentioned earlier gravitational forces at its surface increase as its circumference decrease.

This means, as it nears its critical circumference its shrinkage slows with respect to an external observer who is outside of the gravitation field because its increasing strength causes a slowing of time on its surface. The smaller the star gets the more slowly it appears to collapse because the gravitational field at its surface increase until time becomes frozen for the external observer at the critical circumference.

Therefore, the observations of an external observer would make using conceptual concepts of Einstein’s theory regarding time dilation caused by the gravitational field of a collapsing star would be identical to those predicted by Robert Oppenheimer and Hartland Snyder in terms of the velocity of its contraction.

**However, it also tells us, the laws of physics developed by Einstein for a space-time environment are not violated in black hole with respect to all external observers because the time dilation associated with its gravitational field would not allow the collapse of matter beyond its critical circumference to a singularity. **

However, Einstein developed his Special Theory of Relativity based on the equivalence of all inertial reframes which he defined as frames that move freely under their own inertia neither "pushed not pulled by any force and Therefore, continue to move always onward in the same uniform motion as they began".

This means that one can view the contraction of a star with respect to the inertial reference frame that, according to Einstein exists in the exact center of the gravitational field of a collapsing star.

(Einstein would consider this point an inertial reference frame with respect to the gravitational field of a collapsing star because at that point the gravitational field on one side will be offset by the one on the other side. Therefore, a reference frame that existed at that point would not be pushed or pulled relative to the gravitational field and would move onward with the same motion as that gravitational field.)

**(However, some have suggested that a singularity would form in a black hole if the collapse of a star was not symmetrical with respect to its center. In other words, if one portion of its surface moved at a higher velocity that another towards its center it could not be consider an inertial reference frame because it would be pushed or pulled due to the differential gravity force cause be its uneven collapse. But the laws governing time dilation in Einstein’s theory tell us that time would move slower for those sections of the surface that are moving faster allowing the slower ones to catch up. This also tells us that every point on the surface of star will be at the event horizon at the exact same time and therefore its center will not experience any pushing or pulling at the time of its formation and therefore could be considered an inertial reference frame.)**

The surface of collapsing star from this viewpoint would look according to the field equations developed by Einstein as if the shrinkage slowed to a crawl as the star neared its critical circumference because of the increasing strength of the gravitation field at the star’s surface relative to its center. The smaller it gets the more slowly it appears to collapse because the gravitational field at its surface increases until it becomes frozen at the critical circumference**.**

Therefore, because time stops or becomes frozen at the critical circumference for all observers who is at the center of the clasping mass and the contraction cannot continue from their perspectives.

**However, it also tells us, the laws of physics developed by Einstein for a space-time environment are not violated in black hole with respect to an observer who is at the its center because the time dilation associated with its gravitational field would not allow the collapse of matter beyond its critical circumference to a singularity. **

Yet, Einstein in his general theory showed that a reference frame that was free falling in a gravitational field could also be considered an inertial reference frame.

As mentioned earlier many physicists assume that the mass of a star implodes when it reaches the critical circumference. Therefore, an observer on the surface of that star will be in free fall with respect to the gravitational field of that star when as it passes through its critical circumference.

This indicates that point on the surface of an imploding star, according to Einstein’s theories could also be considered an inertial reference frame because an observer who is on the riding on it will not experience the gravitational forces of the collapsing star.

However, according to the Einstein theory, as a star nears its critical circumference an observer who is on its surface will perceive the differential magnitude of the gravitational field relative to an observer who is in an external reference frame or, as mentioned earlier is at its center to be increasing. Therefore, he or she will perceive time in those reference frames that are not on its surface slowing to a crawl as it approaches the critical circumference. The smaller it gets the more slowly time appears to move with respect to an external reference frame until it becomes frozen at the critical circumference.

Therefore, time would be infinitely dilated or stopped with respect to all reference frames that are not on the surface of a collapsing star from the perspective of someone who was on that surface.

However, the contraction of a star’s surface must be measured with respect to the external reference frames in which it is contracting. But as mentioned earlier Einstein’s theories indicate time in its external environment would become infinitely dilated or stop when the surface of a collapsing star reaches its critical circumference.

Therefore, because time stops or becomes frozen at the critical circumference with respect to the external environment of an observer who riding on its surface the contraction cannot continue because motion cannot occur in an environment where time has stopped.

**However, it also tells us, the laws of physics are not violated in black hole with respect to all riding on the surface of a star because the time dilation associated with its gravitational field the collapse of matter beyond its critical circumference to a singularity. **

This means, as was just shown according to Einstein’s concepts time stops on the surface of a collapsing star from the perspective of all observers when viewed in terms of the gravitational forces the collapse of matter must stop at the critical circumference.

This contradicts the assumption made by many that the implosion would continue for an observer who was riding on its surface.

** In other words, **based on the conceptual principles of Einstein’s theories relating to time dilation caused by a gravitational field of a collapsing star it cannot implode to a singularity as many physicists believe because it causes time to freeze at its critical circumference with respect to all observers and therefore must maintain a quantifiable minimum volume which is equal to the one defined by Karl Schwarzschild.

**However, this means the laws of physics as defined by Einstein do not break done when a singularity forms at the center of a black hole because as was shown above those laws tell us its formation is not supported by those laws. Therefore it cannot be taken as proof that the laws as defined by General Theory Relativity has broken down, because those same laws prevent that from happening **

There can be no other conclusion if one accepts the validity laws as defined by Einstein Relativistic Theories and of the physical observations of the time dilation associated with a gravitational field.

Later Jeff

Copyright 2020 Jeffrey O’Callaghan

The Road to Unifying | The Road to Unifying | The Road to Unifying |

A Quantum Singularity is a misnomer because it owes it existence to classical one created by a black hole not to its quantum mechanical properties.

Even so many physicists assume it is the key to unifying Quantum mechanics with Einstein’s General and Special Theories of Relativity because they believe the gravitational collapse of matter in a black hole, predicted by his theories also predicts, with equal certainty the existence of a singularity, which by definition is infinitely small and quantum mechanical in nature. Therefore, due to the fact that they are caused by gravitational forces a theory of quantum gravity would be required to define its formation.

Its existence is based on a mathematical interpretation of General Theory of Relativity which tells us that when star starts to collapse after burning up its nuclear fuel and forms a black hole the gravitational forces of its mass become large enough to cause matter to collapse to zero volume or one that is governed by quantum mechanics.

However, even though there is observational evidence for the existence of black holes there never will be any for a singularity because according to the General Theory of Relativity nothing, including light can escape form one.

For example NASA’s Hubblesite tells us that "Astronomers have found convincing evidence for a black hole in the center of our own Milky Way galaxy, the galaxy NGC 4258, the giant elliptical galaxy M87, and several others. Scientists verified its existence by studying the speed of the clouds of gas orbiting those regions. In 1994, Hubble Space Telescope data measured the mass of an unseen object at the center of M87. Based on the motion of the material whirling about the center, the object is estimated to be about 3 billion times the mass of our Sun and appears to be concentrated into a space smaller than our solar system."

However, as mentioned earlier we will never be able to observe a singularity because they only exist inside black hole. Therefore to determine their reality we must rely solely on the predictions of the General Theory of Relativity regarding their formation.

*Yet, as mentioned earlier there are some who say the mathematics used to predict the existence of a black hole also predicts, with equal certainty the existence of singularities. In other words by verifying the existence of black holes though mathematics means that they have also verified the existence of singularities.*

*However this would only be true if the mathematics used to predict both a black hole and its singularity conform to the conceptual arguments associated with Einstein General Theory of Relativity because its existence is based solely on that mathematics of that theory and not on observations, as is the case of black holes. *

In other words the fact that we can observe a black hole tells us the mathematics used to predict its existence has a valid basis in ideas of General Relativity.

*However the same cannot be said about the existence of a singularity because the conceptual arguments found in that theory tells us that we cannot extrapolate the mathematics associated with it to the formation of a black hole.*

To understand why we must look at how it describes both the collapse of a star to a black hole and then what happens to its mass after its formation.

Einstein in his General Theory of Relativity predicted time is dilated or moves slower when exposed to gravitational field than when it is not. Therefore, according to Einstein’s theory a gravitational field, if strong enough it would stop time.

In 1915 Karl Schwarzschild discovered that according to it the gravitational field of a star greater than approximately 2.0 times a solar mass would stop the movement of time if it collapsed to a singularity. He also defined the critical circumference or boundary in space around a singularity where the strength of a gravitational field will result in time being infinitely dilated or slowing to a stop.

In other words as a star contacts and its circumference decreases, the time dilation on its surface will increase. At a certain point the contraction of that star will produce a gravitational field strong enough to stop the movement of time. Therefore, the critical circumference defined by Karl Schwarzschild is a boundary in space where time stops relative to the space outside of that boundary.

This critical circumference is called the **event horizon** because an event that occurs on the inside of it cannot have any effect on the environment outside of it.

Yet many physicists, as mentioned earlier believe the existence of a singularity is an inevitable outcome of Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity.

However, it can be shown using the concepts developed by Einstein; this is not true.

In Kip S. Thorne book "Black Holes and Time Warps", he describes how in the winter of 1938-39 Robert Oppenheimer and Hartland Snyder computed the details of a stars collapse into a black hole using the concepts of General Relativity. On page 217 he describes what the collapse of a star would look like, form the viewpoint of an external observer who remains at a fixed circumference instead of riding inward with the collapsing stars matter. They realized the collapse of a star as seen from that reference frame would begin just the way every one would expect. "Like a rock dropped from a rooftop the stars surface falls downward slowly at first then more and more rapidly. However, according to the relativistic formulas developed by Oppenheimer and Snyder as the star nears its critical circumference the shrinkage would slow to a crawl to an external observer because of the time dilatation associated with the relative velocity of the star’s surface. The smaller the circumference of a star gets the more slowly it appears to collapse because the time dilation predicted by Einstein increases as the speed of the contraction increases until it becomes frozen at the critical circumference.

However, the time measured by the observer who is riding on the surface of a collapsing star will not be dilated because he or she is moving at the same velocity as its surface.

Therefore, the proponents of singularities say the contraction of a star can continue until it becomes a singularity because time has not stopped on its surface even though it has stopped to an observer who remains at fixed circumference to that star.

But one would have to draw a different conclusion if one viewed time dilation in terms of the gravitational field of a collapsing star from the reference frames of all observers as Einstein tells we must because they are all equivalence.

Einstein showed that time is dilated by a gravitational field. Therefore, the time dilation on the surface of a star will increase relative to an external observer as it collapses because, as mentioned earlier those forces at its surface increase as its circumference decrease.

This means, as it nears its critical circumference its shrinkage slows with respect to an external observer who is outside of the gravitation field because its increasing strength causes a slowing of time on its surface. The smaller the star gets the more slowly it appears to collapse because the gravitational field at its surface increase until time becomes frozen for the external observer at the critical circumference.

Therefore, the observations of an external observer would make using conceptual concepts of Einstein’s theory regarding time dilation caused by the gravitational field of a collapsing star would be identical to those predicted by Robert Oppenheimer and Hartland Snyder in terms of the velocity of its contraction.

However, as was mentioned earlier Einstein developed his Special Theory of Relativity based on the equivalence of all inertial reframes which he defined as frames that move freely under their own inertia neither "pushed not pulled by any force and therefore continue to move always onward in the same uniform motion as they began".

This means that one can view the contraction of a star with respect to the inertial reference frame that, according to Einstein exists in the exact center of the gravitational field of a collapsing star.

(Einstein would consider this point an inertial reference frame with respect to the gravitational field of a collapsing star because at that point the gravitational field on one side will be offset by the one on the other side. Therefore, a reference frame that existed at that point would not be pushed or pulled relative to the gravitational field and would move onward with the same motion as that gravitational field.)

The surface of collapsing star from this viewpoint would look according to the field equations developed by Einstein as if the shrinkage slowed to a crawl as the star neared its critical circumference because of the increasing strength of the gravitation field at the star’s surface relative to its center. The smaller it gets the more slowly it appears to collapse because the gravitational field at its surface increases until time becomes frozen at the critical circumference.

Therefore, because time stops or becomes frozen at the critical circumference for both an observer who is at the center of the clasping mass and one who is at a fixed distance from its surface the contraction cannot continue from either of their perspectives.

However, Einstein in his general theory showed that a reference frame that was free falling in a gravitational field could also be considered an inertial reference frame.

As mentioned earlier many physicists assume that the mass of a star implodes when it reach the critical circumference. Therefore, the surface of a star and an observer on that surface will be in free fall with respect to the gravitational field of that star when as it passes through its critical circumference.

This indicates that point on the surface of an imploding star, according to Einstein’s theories could also be considered an inertial reference frame because an observer who is on the riding on it will not experience the gravitational forces of the collapsing star.

However, according to the Einstein theory, as a star nears its critical circumference an observer who is on its surface will perceive the differential magnitude of the gravitational field relative to an observer who is in an external reference frame or, as mentioned earlier is at its center to be increasing. Therefore, he or she will perceive time in those reference frames that are not on its surface slowing to a crawl as it approaches the critical circumference. The smaller it gets the more slowly time appears to move with respect to an external reference frame until it becomes frozen at the critical circumference.Therefore, time would be infinitely dilated or stop in all reference that are not on the surface of a collapsing star from the perspective of someone who was on that surface.

However, the contraction of a stars surface must be measured with respect to the external reference frames in which it is contracting. But as mentioned earlier Einstein’s theories indicate time on its surface would become infinitely dilated or stop in with respect to reference frames that were not on it when it reaches its critical circumference.

**There are some who claim that irregularities in the velocity of contractions in the mass forming the black hole would allow it continue to collapse beyond its event horizon. However Einstein’s theories tells us that time would move slower for the faster moving mass components than the slower ones thereby allowing the them to catch up with their faster moving onew so they will be moving at the same speed when they reach the event horizon. **

This means, as was just shown according to Einstein’s concepts time stops on the surface of a collapsing star from the perspective of all observers when viewed in terms of the gravitational forces. Therefore it cannot move beyond the critical circumference because motion cannot occur in an environment where time has stopped.

This contradicts the assumption made by many that the implosion would continue for an observer who was riding on its surface.

Therefore, based on the conceptual principles of Einstein’s theories relating to time dilation caused by a gravitational field of a collapsing star it cannot implode to a singularity as many physicists believe and must maintain a quantifiable minimum volume which is equal to or greater than the critical circumference defined by Karl Schwarzschild.

This means either the conceptual ideas developed by Einstein are incorrect or there must be an alternative solution to the field equations that many physicists used to predict the existence of singularities because, as has just been shown the mathematical predications made by it regarding their existence is contradictory to conceptual framework of his theories.

As was mentioned earlier many physicists think the key to unifying Quantum mechanics with Einstein’s General and Special Theories of Relativity is the singularity that some of the mathematical models say exists in black holes. However, as was show above their existence is not supported by his theories.

Later Jeff

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2019

The Road to Unifying | The Road to Unifying | The Road to Unifying |

because it can stop the collapse of matter no matter how massive an object is.

Einstein told us a gravitational field causes time to dilate and in 1915,Karl Schwarzschild proposed based on Einstein theories the gravitational field of a star greater than approximately 2.0 times a solar mass would stop the movement of time. Additionally, it is assumed that his solution identified a radius for any given mass, known as the Schwarzschild radius, where, if that mass could be compressed to fit within that radius, no known force or degeneracy pressure could stop it from continuing to collapse into a gravitational singularity or black hole. Thus, where the radius of the body is less than its Schwarzschild radius, everything, even photons of light, must inevitably fall into the central body called a singularity or a one-**dimensional** object in space-time.

**However, according to Einstein there is one "force or degeneracy pressure" that will stop it from continuing to collapse into a gravitational singularity and that is time. **

To understand how and why one must analyze how he defined the relativistic properties of space-time and how it interacts with matter in a gravitational field.

For example, as a star contacts and its circumference decreases, the time dilation on its surface will increase. At a certain point called the event horizon the contraction of that star will produce a gravitational field strong enough to stop the movement of time. Therefore, the critical circumference defined by Karl Schwarzschild is a boundary in space where time stops relative to the space outside of that boundary.

However, the existence of a singularity mentioned earlier is based on the assumption that time continues to move for matter even after it has past the event horizon of a black hole.

Yet, this is a direct contradiction of the relativistic properties of time as described in Einstein theories.

In Kip S. Thorne book "Black Holes and Time Warps", he describes how in the winter of 1938-39 Robert Oppenheimer and Hartland Snyder computed the details of a stars collapse into a black hole using the concepts of General Relativity. On page 217 he describes what the collapse of a star would look like, form the viewpoint of an external observer who remains at a fixed circumference instead of riding inward with the collapsing stars matter. They realized the collapse of a star as seen from that reference frame would begin just the way every one would expect. "Like a rock dropped from a rooftop the stars surface falls downward slowly at first then more and more rapidly. However, according to the relativistic formulas developed by Oppenheimer and Snyder as the star nears its critical circumference the shrinkage would slow to a crawl to an external observer because of the time dilatation associated with the relative velocity of the star’s surface. The smaller the circumference of a star gets the more slowly it appears to collapse because the time dilation predicted by Einstein increases as the speed of the contraction increases until it becomes frozen at the critical circumference.

However, the time measured by the observer who is riding on the surface of a collapsing star will not be dilated because he or she is moving at the same velocity as its surface.

*Therefore, the proponents of singularities say the contraction of a star can continue until it becomes a singularity because time has not stopped on its surface even though it has stopped with respect to an observer who remains at fixed circumference to that star.*

But one would have to draw a different conclusion if one viewed time dilation in terms of the gravitational field of a collapsing star.

Einstein showed that time is dilated by a gravitational field. Therefore, the time dilation on the surface of a star will increase relative to an external observer as it collapses because, as mentioned earlier gravitational forces at its surface increase as its circumference decrease.

This means, as it nears its critical circumference its shrinkage slows with respect to an external observer who is outside of the gravitation field because its increasing strength causes a slowing of time on its surface. The smaller the star gets the more slowly it appears to collapse because the gravitational field at its surface increase until time becomes frozen for the external observer at the critical circumference.

Therefore, the observations of an external observer would make using conceptual concepts of Einstein’s theory regarding time dilation caused by the gravitational field of a collapsing star would be identical to those predicted by Robert Oppenheimer and Hartland Snyder in terms of the velocity of its contraction.

**However, it also tells us, the force of time is stronger that the gravitational forces of a black hole with respect to all external observers because when it freezes it prevents the further gravitational collapse of matter beyond the critical circumference with respect to them.**

However, Einstein developed his Special Theory of Relativity based on the equivalence of all inertial reframes which he defined as frames that move freely under their own inertia neither "pushed not pulled by any force and therefore, continue to move always onward in the same uniform motion as they began".

This means that one can view the contraction of a star with respect to the inertial reference frame that, according to Einstein exists in the exact center of the gravitational field of a collapsing star.

(Einstein would consider this point an inertial reference frame with respect to the gravitational field of a collapsing star because at that point the gravitational field on one side will be offset by the one on the other side. Therefore, a reference frame that existed at that point would not be pushed or pulled relative to the gravitational field and would move onward with the same motion as that gravitational field.)

(However some have suggested that a singularity would form in a black hole if the collapse of a star was not symmetrical with respect to its center. In other words if one portion of its surface moved at a higher velocity than another towards its center it could not be consider an inertial reference frame because it would be pushed or pulled due to the differential gravitational force cause be its uneven collapse. But the laws governing time dilation in his theory tell us that time would move slower for those sections of the surface that are moving faster allowing the slower ones to catch up. This also tells us that every point on the surface of star will be at the event horizon at the exact same time and therefore its center will not experience any pushing or pulling at the time of its formation and therefore could be considered an inertial reference frame.)

The surface of collapsing star from this viewpoint would look according to the field equations developed by Einstein as if the shrinkage slowed to a crawl as the star neared its critical circumference because of the increasing strength of the gravitation field at the star’s surface relative to its center. The smaller it gets the more slowly it appears to collapse because the gravitational field at its surface increases until time becomes frozen at the critical circumference.

Therefore, because time stops or becomes frozen at the critical circumference for all observers who are at the center of the clasping mass the contraction cannot continue from their perspectives.

*However, it also tells us, the force of time is stronger than the gravitational forces of a black hole with respect to all observers located at its center because when it freezes with respect to them it prevents the further collapse of matter beyond the critical circumference.*

However, Einstein in his general theory showed that a reference frame that was free falling in a gravitational field could also be considered an inertial reference frame.

As mentioned earlier many physicists assume that the mass of a star implodes when it reaches the critical circumference. Therefore, an observer on the surface of that star will be in free fall with respect to the gravitational field of that star when as it passes through its critical circumference.

This indicates that point on the surface of an imploding star, according to Einstein’s theories could also be considered an inertial reference frame because an observer who is on the riding on it will not experience the gravitational forces of the collapsing star.

However, according to the Einstein theory, as a star nears its critical circumference an observer who is on its surface will perceive the differential magnitude of the gravitational field relative to an observer who is in an external reference frame or, as mentioned earlier is at its center to be increasing. Therefore, he or she will perceive time in those reference frames that are not on its surface slowing to a crawl as it approaches the critical circumference. The smaller it gets the more slowly time appears to move with respect to an external reference frame until it becomes frozen at the critical circumference.

Therefore, time would be infinitely dilated or stopped with respect to all reference frames that are not on the surface of a collapsing star from the perspective of someone who was on that surface.

However, the contraction of a star’s surface must be measured with respect to the external reference frames in which it is contracting. But as mentioned earlier Einstein’s theories indicate time in its external environment would become infinitely dilated or stop when the surface of a collapsing star reaches its critical circumference.

Therefore because time stops or becomes frozen at the critical circumference with respect to the external environment of an observer who riding on its surface the contraction cannot continue because motion cannot occur in an environment where time has stopped.

**However, it also tells us, the force of time is stronger that the gravitational forces of a black hole with respect to an observer who is riding on it because when it freezes with respect to its external environment it prevents further the collapse beyond the critical circumference.**

This means, as was just shown according to Einstein’s concepts because time and movement stops on the surface of a collapsing star from the perspective of all observers when viewed in terms of gravitational forces, the collapse of matter must stop at the critical circumference. This contradicts the assumption made by many that the implosion would continue for an observer who was riding on its surface.

In other words,** **based on the conceptual principles of Einstein’s theories relating to time dilation caused by the gravitational field of a collapsing star it cannot implode to a singularity as many physicists believe because it causes time to freeze at its critical circumference with respect to all observers. Therefore it must maintain a quantifiable minimum volume which is equal to the one defined by Karl Schwarzschild.

This tells us either the conceptual ideas developed by Einstein are incorrect or there must be an alternative solution to the field equations based on the General Theory of Relativity that many physicists used to predict the existence of a singularity because as has just been shown the theoretical predications made by them with respect to the time dilation associated with a gravitational field tell us it cannot exist. Therefore, according to his theories a black hole must have a solid surface at the event horizon which is made up of matter in its most basic form because it cannot be compacted any more.

*However, it also tells us time is a force more powerful than the gravitational field of a black hole because it has the ability to freeze the collapse of matter at its event horizon no matter how massive it is.*

In other words, time is the most powerful in the universe because it can stop the collapse of matter in a black holes.

There can be no other conclusion if one accepts the validity Einstein Relativistic Theories and of the physical observations of the time dilation associated with a gravitational field.

Later Jeff

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2019

The Road to Unifying | The Road to Unifying | The Road to Unifying |

Superposition, in the quantum world means that on a quantum scale, particles can be thought of as waves that can exist in different states or positions at the same time. Like all waves they can overlapping or be superimposed on each other and because it assumes that particles are waves, they can also exist in a superimposed state. However, this means a particle can be in two places at once and in the quantum world only "decides" where it is and its "what" to be when it is observed. This doesn’t make intuitive sense but it’s one of the weird realities of quantum physics.

Many fell it is the only way to explain the experimental observations that support the superposition and wave particle duality is the non-classical non-intuitive one given by quantum mechanics.

** However, Einstein unknowing may have able to define the classical "reality" of Superposition by extrapolating the rules of classical mechanics to the physical properties of space-time environment he defined**.

One of the reasons he may have been unaware of this possibility is because superposition involves the spatial properties of position where as he chose define the universe in terms of time or the properties of four-dimensional space-time. In other words, understanding the physical connection between the spatial properties of position and the time properties of Einstein space-time universe is extremely difficult for the same reasons as one would find it difficult to define a physical connection between apples and oranges.

However, Einstein gave us a way around this when he used the equation E=mc^2 and the constant velocity of light to define the geometric properties of mass and energy in a space-time universe because that provided a method of converting a unit of time he associated with energy in space-time to unit of space one can associate with four *spatial* dimensions. Additionally, because the velocity of light is constant, he also defined a one to one quantitative correspondence between his space-time universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.

This would allow one to understand the ** validity** of quantum mechanics assumption that particles can be defined in terms of waves and how they can be superimposed or simultaneously be in multiple positions before being observed.

For example, the article, "Why is energy/mass quantized?" Oct. 4, 2007 showed that one can use the Einstein’s theories to explain and understand the physicality of the wave properties of particles by extrapolating the rules of classical resonance in a three-dimensional environment to a matter energy wave moving on “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension. It also explains why all energy must be quantized or exists in these discrete resonant systems when observed.

Briefly it showed the four conditions required for resonance to occur in a classical environment, an object, or substance with a natural frequency, a forcing function at the same frequency as the natural frequency, the lack of a damping frequency and the ability for the substance to oscillate spatial would occur in a matter wave moving in four *spatial* dimensions.

The existence of four *spatial* dimensions would give a matter energy wave the ability to oscillate spatially on a "surface" between a third and fourth *spatial* dimensions thereby fulfilling one of the requirements for classical resonance to occur.

These oscillations would be caused by an event such as the decay of a subatomic particle or the shifting of an electron in an atomic orbital. This would force the "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension to oscillate with the frequency associated with the energy of that event.

However, the oscillations caused by such an event would serve as forcing function allowing a resonant system or "structure" to be established in four spatial dimensions.

As was shown in that article these resonant systems in four *spatial* dimensions are responsible for the particle properties of matter.

However, one can also explain how the boundaries of a particle’s resonant structure are defined.

In classical physics, a point on the two-dimensional surface of paper is confined to that surface. However, that surface can oscillate up or down with respect to three-dimensional space.

Similarly, an object occupying a volume of three-dimensional space would be confined to it however, it could, similar to the surface of the paper oscillate "up" or "down" with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

It is the confinement of the "upward" and "downward" oscillations of a three-dimension volume with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension which allows the resonate structure the article "Why is energy/mass quantized?" Oct. 4, 2007 showed was responsible for a particle to exist.

In other words the when the matter energy wave is confined by an observation to three-dimensional space the interference between waves reflected back and forth by that confinement sets a resonant standing wave in space which is called a particle.

In other words, Einstein give us a classical ** validation** of the quantum mechanical assumption that particles can be thought of as waves because it shows they are made up of resonate structure formed matter energy wave and why when someone observes its wave component it always appears as a particle.

*Additionally, one of the most advantageous results of viewing the relativistic properties of Einstein’s theories in terms of their spatial instead of its time components is that gives us an answer to one of the most perplexing aspects of quantum mechanics; that of how and why a particle can simultaneously exists anywhere in the universe before being observed*

This is because it tells the length of an object relative to another is effected by its relative velocity and that there are no preferred reference frames by which one can measure that length. Therefore, one must not only view the distance traversed by the wave with respect to an observer who was external to it but one must also view the distance between observers from the wave’s perspective. Yet it also tells us that the length of everything including the universe from an object or wave moving at the speed of light is zero as can be seen from his formal on the right for length contraction.

Therefore, from the perspective of the energy wave the article "Why is energy/mass quantized?" showed was responsible for a particle which is moving at the speed of light with respect to all observers the distance or length between all observers no matter far they may be from their perspective is zero with respect to that wave. Therefore, its energy exists at every point in between them.

This gives us an explanation in terms of physical properties of Einsteinâ€™s space-time universe for the VALIDITY of quantum mechanics assumption that a photon and its wave packet can simultaneously exists everywhere in in the universe before being observed. In other words, it only "decides" where it wants to be in space when it is prevented from moving at the speed of light relative to an observer by an observation.

However, viewing Einstein theories from the perceptive of their spatial instead of their time components also allows one to derive the classical reason why one must use probabilities to determine a particles position before being observed.

The fact that one can, as was show in the article mentioned earlier “__Why is energy/mass quantized?__” derive the particle properties of an energy wave as the result of a resonant structure formed on the "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension also tells how a particle "decides" where it wants to be when observed in terms of our classical understanding of the world around us.

For example, the energy of a vibrating or oscillating ball on a rubber diaphragm would be disturbed over its entire surface while the magnitude of those vibrations would decrease as one move away from the focal point of the oscillations.

Similarly, if one accepts the validity of Einstein’s theories and the classical mechanism in the article “__Why is energy/mass quantized?__” which define a particle as result of resonant system created by vibrations or oscillations in a "surface" of three-dimensional space, those oscillations as was shown above would be distributed over the entire "surface" three-dimensional space with respect to all observers while the magnitude of those vibrations would be greatest at the focal point of the oscillations and decreases as one moves away from it.

Yet the science of Wave Mechanics tells us resonance would most probably occur on the surface of the rubber sheet were the magnitude of the vibrations is greatest and would diminish as one move away from that point,

Similarly, a particle would most probably be found were the magnitude of the vibrations in a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold is greatest and would diminish as one move away from that point.

This shows how one can make intuitive "sense" of Quantum Superposition and why the wave packet of a particle decides what and where it wants to be when observed by extrapolating the rules of a classical mechanics to the spatial equivalent of Einstein’s theories.

*It should be remembered Einstein genius allows us to view his theory in either four-dimensional space-time or its equivalent in only four *spatial* dimensions. As was shown above changing one’s perspective on his theory from time to its spatial equivalent allows one to form an intuitive understanding of quantum Superposition based on our experiences in a three-dimensional world.*

Latter Jeff

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2019

The Road to Unifying | The Road to Unifying | The Road to Unifying |

I like to think the moon is there even if I am not looking at it is one of the more famous quotes attributed to Einstein when confronting the Quantum mechanical assumption that objects do not exist is space and time until they are observed.

Quantum mechanics assumes that one cannot define the position of particle in terms of where is has been but only in terms of the probabilistic values associated with its wave function. This is in stark contrast to the Classical "Newtonian" assumption that one can assign precise values of future events based on the knowledge of their past.

For example in a quantum system SchrÃ¶dinger wave equation plays the role of the classical Newtonian laws in that it predicts the future position or momentum of a particle in terms of a probability distribution by assuming that it simultaneously exists everywhere in three-dimensional space before it is observed.

This accentuates the fundamental difference between quantum and classical mechanics because the latter tells that a particle and the moon do not exist in specific position until observed where as Classical mechanics tell us that it does.

**However, Einstein unknowing may have provided a way to define the classical "reality" of quantum probabilities by extrapolating the laws of a classical mechanics to the physical properties of the space-time environment he defined.**

One of the reasons he may have been unaware of this possibility is because the probability function of quantum mechanics address the spatial properties of position whereas he * chose* to define the universe in terms of the time properties of four dimensional space-time. In other words understanding the physical connection between the spatial properties of quantum mechanics and the time properties of Einstein space-time universe is extremely difficult for the same reasons as one would find it difficult to define a physical connection between apples and oranges.

Yet, he gave us the solution to this problem when he used the equation E=mc^2 and the constant velocity of light to define the geometric properties of particle in a space-time universe because that provided a method of converting a unit of time he associated with energy to unit of space one can associate with position in four *spatial* dimensions. Additionally because the velocity of light is constant he also defined a one to one quantitative and qualitative correspondence between his space-time universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.

However, as was just mentioned this change in perspective allows one to define a physical connection between Einstein theories and the probability functions of quantum mechanics in terms of their common spatial properties.

For example in the article “Why is energy/mass quantized?” Oct. 4, 2007 it was shown one can derive why the energy associated with the probability wave of quantum mechanics appears as a particle when observed by extrapolating the laws of classical wave mechanics in a three-dimensional environment to a energy wave on a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

Briefly it showed the four conditions required for resonance to occur in a classical environment, an object, or substance with a natural frequency, a forcing function at the same frequency as the natural frequency, the lack of a damping frequency and the ability for the substance to oscillate spatial would occur in one consisting of four spatial dimensions.

The existence of four *spatial* dimensions would give an energy wave the ability to oscillate spatially on a "surface" between a third and fourth *spatial* dimensions thereby fulfilling one of the requirements for classical resonance to occur.

These oscillations would be caused by an event such as the decay of a subatomic particle or the shifting of an electron in an atomic orbital. This would force the "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold to oscillate with the frequency associated with the energy of that event.

The oscillations caused by such an event would serve as forcing function allowing a resonant system or "structure" to be established space.

Therefore, these oscillations in a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold would meet the requirements mentioned above for the formation of a resonant system or "structure" in four-dimensional space if one extrapolated them to that environment.

Classical mechanics tells us the energy of a resonant system can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency.

Hence, these resonant systems in four *spatial* dimensions would be responsible for the discrete quantized energy associated with quantum mechanical systems.

Yet one can also define the boundary conditions responsible for a creating a particle in the terms of our perceptions of a three-dimensional environment.

For example in our three-dimensional world, a point on the two-dimensional surface of paper is confined to that surface. However, that surface can oscillate up or down with respect to three-dimensional space.

Similarly an object occupying a volume of three-dimensional space would be confined to it however, it could, similar to the surface of the paper oscillate “up” or “down” with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

The confinement of the “upward” and “downward” oscillations of an electromagnetic wave with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension is what defines the spatial boundaries associated with the resonant system the article "__Why is energy/mass quantized?__" Oct. 4, 2007 associates with a particle.

This give us explanation of why, in a quantum system the intervention of an observer forces it to "choose" a state or how it "knows" when someone is observing it because if a particle is free to move it will display its wave characteristics while in every case, observing it requires one to confine its energy to the specific volume associated with the observing equipment. Therefore it will always display its particle "reality" when someone looks or observes it.

**However one of the most advantageous results of viewing the relativistic properties of Einstein’s theories in terms of their spatial instead of their time components is that it allow for the integration of one of most perplexing aspects of quantum mechanics; that of how and why a particle’s position when observed is based on probabilities and how it can exist ****simultaneously exists everywhere****.**

The physics of wave mechanics tell us, due to the continuous properties the energy waves the article "__Why is energy/mass quantized?__" Oct. 4, 2007 associated with a quantum system it would be distributed throughout the entire "surface" a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

For example the energy of a vibrating or oscillating ball on a rubber diaphragm would be disturbed over its entire surface while the magnitude of those vibrations would decrease as one move away from the focal point of the oscillations.

Similarly if the assumption that wave function of quantum mechanics represents vibrations or oscillations in a "surface" of three-dimensional space, as was mentioned earlier is correct these oscillations would be distributed over the entire "surface" three-dimensional space while the magnitude of those vibrations would be greatest at the focal point of the oscillations and decreases as one moves away from it.

As was also mentioned earlier the article “__Why is energy/mass quantized?__” showed a quantum particle is a result of a resonant structure formed on the "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

Yet the science of Wave Mechanics tells us resonance would most probably occur on the surface of the rubber sheet were the magnitude of the vibrations is greatest and would diminish as one move away from that point,

Similarly the resonant structure that article associated with a particle would most probably be found were the magnitude of the vibrations in a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold is greatest and would diminish as one move away from that point.

In other words the position in space and time of a single particle could only be defined in terms of the probabilities associated with quantum mechanics.

*Additionally Einstein theory also gives us the answer as to why a particle simultaneously exists everywhere in three-dimensional space. *

That theory tell us all energy waves such as that the article "__Why is energy/mass quantized?__" Oct. 4, 2007 defined as being responsible for a particle travel at the speed of light.

However it also tells the length of an object relative to another is effected by its relative velocity and that that there is no preferred reference frames by which one can measure that length. Therefore one * must* not only view the distance traversed by the wave with respect to an observer who was external to it but one must also view distances from the wave’s perspective.

Yet he also tells us that the length of everything including the universe from an object or wave moving at the speed of light is zero as can be seen from his formal on the right for length contraction.

Therefore from the perspective of the energy wave the article "__Why is energy/mass quantized?__" (mentioned earlier) was showed responsible for a particle, the distance or length between the end point of the entire universe is zero.

In other words from the perspective of the energy wave responsible for a particle the physical length of the universe is zero, therefore it exists at every point in it. In other words Einstein theory tells it **must** simultaneously everywhere when observed by an observer who is not moving at the speed of light. This gives us an explanation in terms of physical properties of Einstein’s space-time universe for the validity of quantum mechanics assumption that a particle simultaneously exists everywhere in three-dimensional space before being observed. In other words it only "decides" where it wants to be in space when it is prevented from moving at the speed of light relative to an observer by an observation.

There can be no other interpretation if one accepts his Theory of Relativity.

**F inally one can definitively answer Einstein’s question "Is the moon there even if I am not looking at it" in terms of his Theory of Relativity.**

As was shown earlier a individual particle would most probably be found were the magnitude of the vibrations associated with it’s wave packet is the greatest. Therefore the position of the mass components of all objects that consist of multiple particles such as the moon would be the point in space where the energy of their individual wave packets overlap which would result that point having a larger energy concentration than the sounding space.

However he did not define the location of a mass, such as the moon in terms of it’s quantized properties but in terms of how energy is concentrated at the apex of a curvature in the continuous properties space-time.

This tells us the moon is there when we are not looking because the overlapping of its individual energy wave components causes their energy to be concentrated in a specific volume of three-dimensional space and not because of the probability it’s individual particle components will be at that specific spot in space.

**This shows that one can define why the quantum probability function gives us an accurate description of nature and why the moon is their when no is looking by extrapolating the laws of a classical mechanics to the physical properties of the space-time environment ***defined by Einstein. *

Later Jeff

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2019

The Road to Unifying | The Road to Unifying | The Road to Unifying |