Quantum mechanics assumes the quantization of energy is what prevents electrons from falling into the nucleus of atoms.   However, Classical Wave Mechanics provides another explanation base the observation that a system which is oscillating at its natural resonant frequency is one the most efficient ways to store and transfer energy between different storage modes.  This combined with the law conservation of energy which tells us it can neither be created or destroyed suggests the reason why electrons do not fall into the nucleus MAY BE because the most efficient way to store their energy is in resonate systems. One of the core principals of quantum mechanics is that the energy of all electrons is stored in a wave defined by de Broglie’s equation ?dB = h/p.

Therefore, to verify the reason electrons do not fall into the nucleus is the law conservation of energy and not the fact that quantum mechanics tell us it is quantized one must first show how a resonate system can be created in the space around the nucleus in terms of the non-quantized properties of a wave.

Science of wave mechanics tells us the wave energy of an electron would move continuously in the space around the nucleus it is bound to.  However, as mentioned earlier a system which is oscillating at its natural or harmonic of its resonant wavelength is one the most efficient ways to store energy.  Therefore, the most efficient way to store it would be in a wave moving in a path where the circumference is equal to the wavelength or a harmonic of its resonate system.

However, observations and the science of wave mechanics also tells us the energy of a resonant system, such as a standing wave can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency.

This tell us the energy of the electrons orbiting an atom MAY NOT be quantized just because quantum mechanics say they are but because the most efficient way to store their energy is in a quantized resonant system.

As was mentioned earlier energy can neither be created or destroyed therefore an electron’s energy could NEVER repeat NEVER disappear by falling into a nucleus and therefore it MUST repeat MUST be stored someplace.

Yet as was also mentioned earlier classical wave mechanics tells us the most efficient way to store energy is in resonant system such as the standing wave. This tells us the energy in each level would most likely be stored in a resonant system or standing wave that has the energy associated with that level.

Both quantum mechanics and as was shown above classical wave mechanics gives valid reasons why electrons do not fall in the nucleus.  Quantum mechanics assumes they do not because their energy is quantized based ONLY on the assumption it is quantized.  However, as was show above classical wave mechanics and law of conservation of energy gives another reason which are just as valid in terms of the observable properties standing waves and the fact that energy has NEVER been observed to be either created or destroyed.

Putting it another way the reason electrons do no fall into the nucleus MAY NOT be because Quantum mechanics tells us they are quantized but because observations of resonant systems and the law of conservation of energy tell us their energy can NEVER repeat NEVER be destroyed or as mentioned earlier disappear into the nucleus.

Physics is a science based on observation.  Therefore, if two ideas give the same result one should give more creditability to the one which can be verified observationally instead of one that cannot.

Quantum tunneling is the quantum mechanical phenomenon where a wavefunction can propagate through a potential barrier.

Many believe the ability of a particle to penetrate through a potential energy barrier that is higher in energy than its potential energy can only be explain by assuming it is a quantum mechanical phenomenon. However, that MAY NOT be true because it could be due to the dynamics of an electromagnetic wave in space-time.

But before can explain why we must first establish a physical connection between a quantum system and the mathematical properties of the wave function with the properties of an electromagnetic wave in space-time. This can be accomplished because in Relativity the evolution of space-time is defined in terms of an electromagnetic wave while, the wave function defines how a quantum environment evolves to the point where it is observed.

This commonality suggests the wave function could be a mathematical representation of an electromagnetic wave in space-time.

One can connect them because the science of wave mechanics and relatively tells us an electromagnetic wave moves continuously through space-time unless it is prevented from moving through time by someone or something interacting with it. This would result in it being confined to three-dimensional space. The science of wave mechanics also tells us the three-dimensional “walls” of this confinement will result in its energy being reflected back on itself thereby creating a resonant or standing wave in three-dimensional space. This would cause the energy of an electromagnetic wave to be concentrated at the point in space were a particle would be found. Additionally, wave mechanics also tells us the energy of a resonant system such as a standing wave can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency that the wave function associates with a particle.

One of the core principals of quantum mechanics is that the wave function continues mathematically evolve until it interacts with someone or something. Only then does the quantum system it defines collapses or reduces to the non-mathematical or physical properties of a particle.

Putting it another way when an electromagnetic wave is prevented from moving through space time either by being observed or encountering an object it is reduced or “Collapses” to a form a standing wave that would define the quantized energy quantum mechanics associates with a particle.

As was mentioned earlier quantum mechanics defines the evolution of a quantum system in terms of the mathematical properties of the wave function. However, as was shown above one can establish a physical connection to a space- time environment if one assumes that it represents an electromagnetic wave in a space-time because if it is prevented from evolving through space by an observation it presents itself as a particle.

As was also mentioned earlier many believe the ability of a particle to penetrate through a potential energy barrier that is higher in energy than the its kinetic energy can only be explain by assuming it is a quantum mechanical phenomenon.

However, one can use the science of wave mechanics to show that MAY NOT be true.

It and observations of waves tell us when the crests of two waves collide will produce a wave whose amplitude is greater. This means if crests of the standing wave responsible for a particle mentioned above collide, they will produce a wave whose amplitude MAY be large enough to go over a potential energy barrier that is higher than that associated with the original wave.

One could validate this conclusion because if true one should be able to use the science of wave mechanics to define how many the times in a given time period a crest would occur that would be large enough to overcome the potential energy barrier in front of it. If that value matches the probability, one occurs based on the wave function it would support that assumption.

Entanglement provides a VERY SIMPLE experimental way of determining if Quantum mechanics or Einstein’s Relativistic theories define why our universe is what it is.

This is because it is one of the central principles of quantum physics. In short it assumes two particles or molecules share on a quantum level one or more properties such as spin, polarization, or momentum. This connection persists even if you move one of the entangled objects far away from the other. Therefore, when an observer interacts with one the other is instantly affected.

However, it contradicts the central core Einstein’s theory of Relativity which states that no information can be transmitted instantaneously or faster than the speed of light. Since these two concepts are diametrically opposite, if one can define the mechanism responsible for entanglement in terms of either one it would invalidate the other will help us to understand why our universe is what it is.

This is because there is irrefutable experimental evidence the act of measuring the state of one of a pair of photons instantaneously affect the other even though they are physically separated from each other.

As was mentioned earlier quantum physics, assumes ALL entangled particles, not only photons remain connected so that actions performed on one immediately affect the other, even when separated by great distances, while Einstein tells us that instantaneous or faster than light communication between to particles is impossible.  However, he also told us the distance between two objects or points in space is defined by their relative motion and that there is no preferred reference frame by which one can define that distance.

Therefore, he tells the distance between the observational points in a laboratory, can also be defined from the perspective of the photons moving at the speed of light.

Yet, his formula for length contraction tells us the separation between those observational points from the perspective of two photons moving at the speed of light would be ZERO no matter how far apart they might be from the perspective of an observer in that laboratory. This is because, as was just mentioned according to the concepts of Relativity one can view the photons as being stationary and the observers as moving at the velocity of light.

Therefore, according to Einstein’s theory all photons which are traveling at the speed of light are entangled no matter how far they may appear to be someone who is looking at them.  Additionally, it also tells us the information exchange between two entangle photons does not travel faster than the speed of light because from their perspective the distance between the observation points where information was read is zero.

(Some have suggested that “There are inertial frames for every speed less than light but there is none for light speed itself. Any attempt to generate one actually generates a degenerate frame which can cover only an infinitesimal fraction of space-time.”

However, that argument is invalid, because the conceptual foundations and Einstein’s formulas for length contractions associated with relative motion ARE SOLVABLE for the speed of light. That tells, us since there is a valid solution for the speed of light which is zero the distance between the endpoints of all observations made in a lab CAN be zero for all photons. Putting it another way even though it may define reference frame of zero length does it does NOT mean it is degenerate because as was mentioned earlier it is a valid solution of Einstein’s equations)

.    In other words, entanglement of photons can be explained and predicted terms of the relativistic properties of space-time as defined by Einstein as well as by quantum mechanics.

HOWEVER, AS WAS MENTIONED EARLIER ONE OF THE CORE PRINCIPALS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS IS THAT ALL PARTICLES SHARE ON A QUANTUM LEVEL ONE OR MORE PROPERTIES SUCH AS SPIN POLARIZATION OR MOMENTUM.

This gives us a way of experimentally determining which of these two theories define why entanglement occurs because if it is found that some particles that are NOT moving at the speed of light experience entanglement it would validate one of the core principals of quantum mechanics and invalidate Relativities assumption that information cannot be exchange instantaneously or faster that the speed of light.

However, one MUST ALSO use another core principle of quantum mechanics defined by De Broglie that particles are made up of a wave whose wavelength is defined by ? = h/p to determine if it or Einstein’s theories define how the universe works. This is because it tells us all material particles have an extended volume equal to there wavelength.

Yet because ALL particles have an extended volume equal to their wavelength there will be an overlap or entanglement if the distance separating them is less than their volume as defined by De Broglie.

This tells us some particles moving slower than the speed of light CAN BE entangled if the relativistic distance between the observation points from the perspective of the particles is less than their extended volume is because from their perspective they are in physical contact.

This means that both relativity and quantum mechanics tell us that all particles CAN be entangled if the distance between the end points of the measurements of their shared properties is less than their wavelength or volume as defined by De Broglie.

However, this gives us a way to DEFINITIVELY determine which one of these theories defines the reason for entanglement because we can precisely define the wavelength and therefore the volume of a particle by, as mentioned earlier using De Broglie formula ? = h/p while one can determine, the relative distance between the observation points from the perspective of the particles being observed by using Einstein formula for length contraction.  If it is found entanglement DOES NOT occur if that distance is greater than a particles volume then it would invalidate the core principles of quantum mechanics that two particles or molecules share on a quantum level one or more properties such as spin, polarization, or momentum no matter how far they are separated.  However, if it is found that entanglement does occur even if the separation was greater than their volume it would invalidate the core principals of relativity that no information can be transferred faster that the speed of light.

In other words, it gives us a doable experimental that will UNEQUIVOCALLY tell us if Quantum Mechanics or Einstein’s’ theories define why the universe is what it is.

Richard Feynman the farther of Quantum Electrodynamics or “OED” realized the significance of the Thompson’s double slit experiment because it demonstrates the inseparability of the wave and particle properties of particles and felt a complete understanding of quantum mechanics could be gleaned from carefully thinking through its implications.

However it also allows one to understand the physical connection between quantum mechanics and the space-time universe of Einstein.

The double slit experiment is made up of “A coherent source of photons illuminating a screen after passing through a thin plate with two parallel slits cut in it. The wave nature of light causes the light waves passing through both slits to interfere, creating an interference pattern of bright and dark bands on the screen. However, at the screen, the light is always found to be absorbed as discrete particles, called photons. When only one slit is open, the pattern on the screen is a diffraction pattern however, when both slits are open, the pattern is similar but with much more detailed. These facts were elucidated by Thomas Young in a paper entitled “Experiments and Calculations Relative to Physical Optics,” published in 1803. To a very high degree of success, these results could be explained by the method of Huygens–Fresnel principle that is based on the hypothesis that light consists of waves propagated through some medium. However, discovery of the photoelectric effect made it necessary to go beyond classical physics and take the quantum nature of light into account.

It is a widespread misunderstanding that, when two slits are open but a detector is added to determine which slit a photon has passed through, the interference pattern no longer forms and it yields two simple patterns, one from each slit, without interference. However, there ways to determine which slit a photon passed through in which the interference pattern will be changed but not be completely wiped out. For instance, by placing an atom at the position of each slit and monitoring whether one of these atoms is influenced by a photon passing the interference pattern will be changed but not be completely wiped out.

However the most baffling part of this experiment comes when only one photon at a time impacts a barrier with two opened slits because an interference pattern forms which is similar to what it was when multiple photons were impacting the barrier. This is a clear implication the particle called a photon has a wave component, which simultaneously passes through both slits and interferes with itself. (The experiment works with electrons, atoms, and even some molecules too.)”

As was mentioned earlier, one can understand this experiment in term of the physical properties of space-time and Relatively because they tell us wave energy moves continuously through space and time time unless it is prevented from by moving through time by someone observing or something interacting with it. This would result in its energy being confined to three-dimensional space. The science of wave mechanics also tells us the three-dimensional “walls” of this confinement will result in its energy being reflected back on itself thereby creating a resonant or standing wave in three-dimensional space. This would cause its wave energy to be concentrated at the point in space where a particle would be found. Additionally, wave mechanics also tells us the energy of a resonant system, such as a standing wave which this confinement would create can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency. This means the particle quantum mechanic calls a photon would have an extended volume equal to the wavelength associated with its standing wave.

(Note the boundaries or “walls” of its confinement would be defined by its wave properties. If an electromagnetic wave is prevented from moving through time it will be reflected back on itself. However, that reflected wave still cannot move through time therefore it will be reflected back creating a standing wave. Putting it another way wave itself defines its boundaries because if it cannot move though time it MUST STAND in place in the form of a standing wave.)

As was mentioned earlier one can use the above to demonstrate the physical connection between quantum mechanics and the space-time universe of Einstein.

Briefly it shows the reason why the interference pattern remains when one photon at a time is fired at the barrier with both slits open or “the most baffling part of this experiment” is because, as mentioned earlier it is made up of a standing wave therefore it occupies an extended volume which is directly related to its wavelength.

This means a portion of its energy could simultaneously pass both slits, if the diameter of its volume exceeds the separation of the slits and recombine on the other side to generate an interference pattern.  This would occur because wave energy is allowed to move freely through time.

However, when its energy is prevented from moving through time by contacting the screen its energy will be will confined to three-dimensional space causing it to be concentrated in a standing wave that as mentioned earlier would define the particle properties of a photon.

Additionally because the energy of the standing wave which earlier was shown to define a photon is dependent on its frequency the energy of the particle created when it contacts the screen must have the same energy. Therefore, were it appears on the screen will be determined by where the interference of the wave properties from each slit combine to produce enough energy to support the standing wave associated with its  particle properties.

It also explains why the interference pattern disappears, in most cases when a detector is added to determine which slit a photon has passed through is because the energy required to measure which one of slits it passes through interacts with it causing the wavelength of the one being measured to change so that it will not have the same resonant characteristics as one that passed through the other slit.  Therefore, the energy passing thought that slit will not be able to interact, in most cases with the energy passing through the other one to form an interference pattern on the screen.

However it also explains why, as was mentioned “there are ways to determine which slit a photon passed through that will cause a change in the interference pattern but will not completely wiped it out.

The fact that the interference pattern can still occur even if a measurement is made is because if the energy passing through one of the two slits is altered by a relatively small amount compared to what it originally was, classical wave mechanics tells us it will be able to interact to form a slightly different resonant system with a slightly different interference pattern on the other side than would be the case if no measurement was taken.

However, this also means one SHOULD be able to use the science of wave mechanics and the physical properties of space-time to quantify the maximum amount of energy a measuring device can remove from the wave while passing through a slit that will permit the interference pattern although somewhat altered to be re-established on the other side.

This provides an EXPERIMENTAL WAY of determining if the results of the Thompson’s double slit experiment are due to physical properties of space-time or the quantum properties of the wave function

because if the pattern disappears above that value and reappears below it would SUGGEST the above explanation is valid.  If not it would SUGGEST the quantum mechanical one is.

Quantum mechanics defines the evolution the universe in terms of the mathematical properties of a wave function which tells us matter exists as both waves and particlesand only collapses or “decides” which one it what’s to be when it interacts with the external world while Einstein defines it in terms of the physical properties of space-time.

Therefore, to define how the wave function evolves in terms of space-time one must show how the interactions of its mathematical properties with space time causes it to decide if it what’s to be a particle or a wave. To do that we must first establish a physical connection between them and the properties of the space-time. This can be accomplished by the fact evolution in both a quantum and space-time environments are defined by a wave. For example, Relativity defines evolution of space-time in terms of the energy propagated by electromagnetic wave while Quantum Mechanics defines it in terms of the mathematical evolution of a wave function.

This commonality suggests the wave function could be a mathematical representation of an electromagnetic wave in space-time.

This means one can connect them by using that commonality, the science of wave mechanics and the fact that Relativity tells us an electromagnetic wave moves continuously through space-time unless it is prevented from doing so by an interaction with the external world.  The science of wave mechanics also tells us the three-dimensional “walls” of this confinement will result in its energy being reflected back on itself thereby creating a resonant or standing wave in three-dimensional space. Additionally, wave mechanics also tells us the energy of a resonant system such as a standing wave can only take on the discrete or quantized values quantum mechanics associates with particles.

The boundaries or “walls” of its confinement would be defined by its wave properties. If an electromagnetic wave is prevented from moving through time it will be reflected back on itself. However, that reflected wave still cannot move through time therefore it will be reflected back creating a standing wave. The wave itself defines its boundaries because if it cannot move though time it MUST STAND in place in the form of a standing wave called a photon. Putting it another way a particle is a wave that is moving ONLY IN time and NOT THROUGH time and space.

This shows how and why matter  exists as both a wave and particle and only “decides” which one it what’s to be when it interacts with the external world of in a space time if one assumes that the wave function is representative of an electromagnetic wave in space-time.

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