01

Richard Feynman the farther of Quantum Electrodynamics or “OED” realized the significance of the Thompson’s double slit experiment because it demonstrates the inseparability of the wave and particle properties of particles and felt a complete understanding of quantum mechanics could be gleaned from carefully thinking through its implications.

However it also allows one to understand the physical connection between quantum mechanics and the space-time universe of Einstein.

The double slit experiment is made up of “A coherent source of photons illuminating a screen after passing through a thin plate with two parallel slits cut in it. The wave nature of light causes the light waves passing through both slits to interfere, creating an interference pattern of bright and dark bands on the screen. However, at the screen, the light is always found to be absorbed as discrete particles, called photons.

When only one slit is open, the pattern on the screen is a diffraction pattern however, when both slits are open, the pattern is similar but with much more detailed. These facts were elucidated by Thomas Young in a paper entitled “Experiments and Calculations Relative to Physical Optics,” published in 1803. To a very high degree of success, these results could be explained by the method of Huygens–Fresnel principle that is based on the hypothesis that light consists of waves propagated through some medium. However, discovery of the photoelectric effect made it necessary to go beyond classical physics and take the quantum nature of light into account.

It is a widespread misunderstanding that, when two slits are open but a detector is added to determine which slit a photon has passed through, the interference pattern no longer forms and it yields two simple patterns, one from each slit, without interference. However, there ways to determine which slit a photon passed through in which the interference pattern will be changed but not be completely wiped out. For instance, by placing an atom at the position of each slit and monitoring whether one of these atoms is influenced by a photon passing the interference pattern will be changed but not be completely wiped out.

However the most baffling part of this experiment comes when only one photon at a time impacts a barrier with two opened slits because an interference pattern forms which is similar to what it was when multiple photons were impacting the barrier. This is a clear implication the particle called a photon has a wave component, which simultaneously passes through both slits and interferes with itself. (The experiment works with electrons, atoms, and even some molecules too.)”

As was mentioned earlier, one can understand this experiment in term of the physical properties of space-time and Relatively because they tell us wave energy moves continuously through space and time time unless it is prevented from by moving through time by someone observing or something interacting with it. This would result in its energy being confined to three-dimensional space. The science of wave mechanics also tells us the three-dimensional “walls” of this confinement will result in its energy being reflected back on itself thereby creating a resonant or standing wave in three-dimensional space. This would cause its wave energy to be concentrated at the point in space where a particle would be found. Additionally, wave mechanics also tells us the energy of a resonant system, such as a standing wave which this confinement would create can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency. This means the particle quantum mechanic calls a photon would have an extended volume equal to the wavelength associated with its standing wave.

(Note the boundaries or “walls” of its confinement would be defined by its wave properties. If an electromagnetic wave is prevented from moving through time it will be reflected back on itself. However, that reflected wave still cannot move through time therefore it will be reflected back creating a standing wave. Putting it another way wave itself defines its boundaries because if it cannot move though time it MUST STAND in place in the form of a standing wave.)

As was mentioned earlier one can use the above to demonstrate the physical connection between quantum mechanics and the space-time universe of Einstein.

Briefly it shows the reason why the interference pattern remains when one photon at a time is fired at the barrier with both slits open or “the most baffling part of this experiment” is because, as mentioned earlier it is made up of a standing wave therefore it occupies an extended volume which is directly related to its wavelength.

This means a portion of its energy could simultaneously pass both slits, if the diameter of its volume exceeds the separation of the slits and recombine on the other side to generate an interference pattern. This would occur because wave energy is allowed to move freely through time.

However, when its energy is prevented from moving through time by contacting the screen its energy will be will confined to three-dimensional space causing it to be concentrated in a standing wave that as mentioned earlier would define the particle properties of a photon.

Additionally because the energy of the standing wave which earlier was shown to define a photon is dependent on its frequency the energy of the particle created when it contacts the screen must have the same energy. Therefore, were it appears on the screen will be determined by where the interference of the wave properties from each slit combine to produce enough energy to support the standing wave associated with its particle properties.

It also explains why the interference pattern disappears, in most cases when a detector is added to determine which slit a photon has passed through is because the energy required to measure which one of slits it passes through interacts with it causing the wavelength of the one being measured to change so that it will not have the same resonant characteristics as one that passed through the other slit. Therefore, the energy passing thought that slit will not be able to interact, in most cases with the energy passing through the other one to form an interference pattern on the screen.

However it also explains why, as was mentioned “there are ways to determine which slit a photon passed through that will cause a change in the interference pattern but will not completely wiped it out.

The fact that the interference pattern can still occur even if a measurement is made is because if the energy passing through one of the two slits is altered by a relatively small amount compared to what it originally was, classical wave mechanics tells us it will be able to interact to form a slightly different resonant system with a slightly different interference pattern on the other side than would be the case if no measurement was taken.

However, this also means one SHOULD be able to use the science of wave mechanics and the physical properties of space-time to quantify the maximum amount of energy a measuring device can remove from the wave while passing through a slit that will permit the interference pattern although somewhat altered to be re-established on the other side.

This provides an EXPERIMENTAL WAY of determining if the results of the Thompson’s double slit experiment are due to physical properties of space-time or the quantum properties of the wave function

because if the pattern disappears above that value and reappears below it would SUGGEST the above explanation is valid. If not it would SUGGEST the quantum mechanical one is.

15

The physicist John Wheeler once asked how can one can best describe the reality of quantum mechanics in five words or fewer? he determined the best answer was given by Aatish Bhatia “Don’t look: waves. Look: particles.” He felt that describes it in “Nutshell” because the wavefunction maintains its mathematical properties until it is observed or interacted with and only after that does it transform or in quantum speak “COLLAPSE” to the physical reality of a particle.

Aatish definition of quantum mechanics demonstrates one of the difficulties in merging quantum mechanics with Einstein’s Relativistic Theories is explaining how and why the act of observing or interacting with the mathematical properties of a quantum environment it to “COLLAPSES” in the form of a particle.

Therefore, one requirement for merging it with Relativity would be to explain how and why observing it transforms its mathematical properties to a physical one of a particle.

One way of doing this is to use the fact that both their evolutions are controlled by a wave. For example, Relativity defines it in terms of the energy propagated by electromagnetic wave while Quantum Mechanics defines it in terms of the mathematical evolution of the wave function.

This suggests the wave function that governs the evolution of a quantum environment may be mathematical representation of the electromagnetic wave that governs the creation of particles in the universe of Relativity. This means we may be able understand the “COLLAPSE” of the wave function and why Don’t look: waves. Look: particles describe quantum reality by looking at how an electromagnetic wave evolves in the space-time environment of Relativity

For example, the science of wave mechanics and Relatively tells us wave energy would move continuously through space-time unless it is prevented from by moving through time by someone observing or something interacting with it. This would result in its energy being confined to three-dimensional space. The science of wave mechanics also tells us the three-dimensional “walls” of this confinement will result in its energy being reflected back on itself thereby creating a resonant or standing wave in three-dimensional space. This would cause its wave energy to be concentrated at the point in space where a particle would be found. Additionally, wave mechanics also tells us the energy of a resonant system, such as a standing wave which this confinement would create can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency.

The boundaries or “walls” of its confinement would be defined by its wave properties. If an electromagnetic wave is prevented from moving through time it will be reflected back on itself. However, that reflected wave still cannot move through time therefore it will be reflected back creating a standing wave. The wave itself defines its boundaries because if it cannot move though time it MUST STAND in place in the form of a standing wave.

In other words, this shows one can use the established science of wave mechanics and physical world of Relativity to show why when some looks at a quantum existence it appears as a particle because that act creates boundaries required to create the resonant system which defines one.

This also shows how one can explain the COLLAPSE of the wave function and why Don’t look: waves. Look: particles” describes the quantum world in terms of the evolution of electromagnetic wave in the space-time environment of Relativity.

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan Mar. 2021

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In an earlier post An alternative to a singularity? Aug 15 2008 we defined what happens to matter and energy as it falls into a black hole in terms of inertial reference frames. However, we did not attempt to define what happens after that. The reason was because we must use Einstein’s mathematical definitions of the curvature in the geodesics that define how mass and energy move in a space-time environment to do so. They tells us that it would take an infinite amount of time mass and energy to form singularity after passing through the event horizon of a black hole for the same reason we that observe it to take an infinite amount of time to reach it from the outside.

This is because as mass or energy is added to it the curvature defining its gravitational geodesic in space time expands adding another layer to it. However that does not mean that the matter or energy that is under that layer is free to move towards its center because the gravitational curvature in the geodesic that defines it movement is still there but at a lower gravitational potential. This means any matter or energy that exits at a layer under the event horizon could NOT move towards its center to form a singularity but can only move around the circular geodesic generated by the gravitational potential at that level. However, Einstein’s math tells us would take infinite amount of time to cross to a lower gravitational level. This is similar to the observations involving how matter and energy that tell us it take an infinite amount of time for it move through an event horizon from outside of black hole.

This tells us that either we have misinterpreted the math that tells us that a singular can exist at the center of a black hole or we must rewrite them based on the observations of how mass and energy interact with the event horizon of a black hole. We do not believe we have any other options base on those observations.

So if a singularly is not at the center of a black hole what is.

We know the densest form of observable matter is found in a neutron star where the gravitational forces are strong enough to overcome the forces keeping electrons protons and neutron apart. We also know that a neutron star is capable of becoming a black hole if it absorbs enough mass and energy to become a one. However, that does not mean that it collapses to a singularity. The total energy and therefore the total gravitational potential of the volume of space our solar system occupies consists of the mass and energy of the sun and the planets which are orbiting it. This observation suggests that the total mass in the volume of space occupied by a black hole maybe made up of the components of neutron star and the mass that as was show above would be orbiting it on the gravitational geodesic created by it. These observations of our solar system suggest that the central core of a black hole is NOT a singularity but the remnants of neutron star whose gravitational potential has been increase enough by the mass and energy that is orbiting in the gravitational geodesic created by it to form one.

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan Mar. 2021

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Articles posted in 2020, 2019, 2017 and 18, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, and 2007

Preface

The purpose of this blog is to elaborate on the theoretical ideas contained in its companion book “The Reality of Four Spatial Dimensions”

in Thomas S. Kuhn’s book “The Structure of Scientific Revolution” he documents the doubts that precipitate a paradigm change in scientific thought.

For example, even though one could still make accurate predictions of planetary motions using the 15 century geocentric models it became increasing more difficult to integrate that concept with the more accurate observational data provided by the new technologies of that day. This resulted in some scientists questioning their validity.

He suggests the doubt generated by its persistent inability of to explain new data lead many scientists of that period to adopt the simpler rules of the revolutionary heliocentric model.

Modern physics appears to be on the verge of a similar revolution because the discoveries of dark matter and dark energy are extremely difficult to integrate into its current theoretical models.

As Thomas S. Kuhn points out failure of an existing paradigm is a prelude to the search for a new one.

It continues the search, began in its companion book the “The Reality of Four Spatial Dimensions” to not only explain how one can seamlessly integrate the observations of dark matter and dark energy into a theoretical model based on the existence of four *spatial* dimensions but to provide a unifying mechanism responsible for the four forces of nature (gravity, electromagnetism, the weak, and strong) governing the interactions of matter, energy, space, and time.

Each article covers one aspect of a search for the “reality” it defines. For example, the article “What is dark energy” defines its casually in terms of an interaction of three-dimensional space with a fourth while others derive the quantum mechanical properties of energy/mass in terms of a resonant system formed by a matter wave on a “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

It is not meant to verify the many answers found in the book “The Reality of Four Spatial Dimensions”. Instead it is meant to give the scientific community the specific information and experiment techniques required to either verify or falsify it contents. It relies less on mathematics and more on conceptual logic and thought experiments (much like Albert Einstein did) to show how one can explain and predict all modern observations by extrapolating the rules defining classical three-dimensional space to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2020

“The universe’s most powerful enabling tool is not knowledge or understanding but imagination because it extends the reality of one’s environment.”

Topic | Date posted | catorgory | Author |

Quantum Tunneling in space time | June 15, 2021 | Theoretical | Jeff |

How should we define reality? | June 1, 2021 | Theoretical | Jeff |

Is Gravitational time dilation responsible for Dark Energy | May 15, 2021 | Theoretical | Jeff |

Einstein’s explanation of mass and why it is resistance to a change in motion | May 1, 2021 | Jeff | |

Apr. 15, 2021 | Jeff | ||

Apr. 1, 2021 | Jeff | ||

Merging the collapse of the wave function with Einstein Theories of Relativity | Mar. 12, 2021 | Jeff | |

Mar. 6, 2021 | Jeff | ||

Could Black holes be responsible for the expansion period in our universe’s history? | Jan.1,2021 | Jeff |

Articles posted in 2020, 2019, 2017 and 18, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, and 2007

The Road to Unifying | The Road to Unifying | The Road to Unifying |

15

Cosmologists have not yet been able to determine if the universe will keep on expanding or enter a contraction phase but if it does it will generate a lot of heat. I wonder what effect that heat would have on a black hole. My intuition is that the smaller ones may just dissolve or return the ions they are made up of back to space but the larger ones MAY I repeat MAY exploded like a kernel of popcorn. The heat created by this expulsion would cascade to other black holes causing them to explode in rapid succession. The energy released by a single one would only result in a small increase in the rate of the universe expansion. However, the explosions of large numbers over a short period of time COULD result in a very rapid expansion that might approach that of the inflationary model based on the expansion of a singularity.

Some will probably say that is it crazy to assume that a black hole can explode however I think it is crazier to assume that the explosion of a single one-dimensional point called a singularity can result in the observables properties of our universe.

One advantage to basing an inflationary model on the explosions of black holes is that it defines a mechanism for the start of the inflationary period in terms of an observable properties of our universe. Additionally, one can, through observations estimate the total energy content of all of the black holes in universe AT THE TIME OF ITS COLLAPSE based on how many presently exist. This would allow one to estimate the rate of the universe’s inflationary expansion caused by a rapid release of their energy.

To determine if this IDEA is viable solution one would have to first determine if heat can cause a black hole to explode. If it can one could use their observable properties to mathematically quantify the temperature required for that to occur. We can also estimate the maximum temperature the complete collapse of the universe would attain. If that value is greater than the temperature required to cause a black hole to explode it would add creditability to the above IDEA. After that it should be possible to determine rate at which the energy of the explosion of a single black hole will ripple through rest and cause them to explode. Since, as was mentioned earlier because we can estimate, based on observations the total energy of all of the black holes in our observable universe AT THE TIME OF ITS COLLAPSE we mathematically determine rate at which energy is released and therefore the rate of the universe’s expansion at each point in its evolution.

In other words, it allows us to define an inflationary period in our universe’s evolution based on the mathematical analysis of the observable properties of our environment instead of the unobservable properties of a quantum singularity.

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan Jan. 2021

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