Articles posted in 2015

Articles posted in 2022. 2021, 2020, 2019, 2017 and 18, 2016, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, and 2007


The purpose of this blog is to elaborate on the theoretical ideas contained in its companion book “The Reality of Four Spatial Dimensions.

In Thomas S. Kuhn’s book “The Structure of Scientific Revolution” he documents the doubts that precipitate a paradigm change in scientific thought.

For example, even though one could still make accurate predictions of planetary motions using the 15 century geocentric models it became increasing more difficult to integrate that concept with the more accurate observational data provided by the new technologies of that day. This resulted in some scientists questioning their validity.

He suggests the doubt generated by its persistent inability of to explain new data lead many scientists of that period to adopt the simpler rules of the revolutionary heliocentric model.

Modern physics appears to be on the verge of a similar revolution because the discoveries of dark matter and dark energy are extremely difficult to integrate into its current theoretical models.

As Thomas S. Kuhn points out failure of an existing paradigm is a prelude to the search for a new one.

It continues the search, began in its companion book the “The Reality of Four Spatial Dimensions” to not only explain how one can seamlessly integrate the observations of dark matter and dark energy into a theoretical model based on the existence of four *spatial* dimensions but to provide a unifying mechanism responsible for the four forces of nature (gravity, electromagnetism, the weak, and strong) governing the interactions of matter, energy, space, and time.

Each article covers one aspect of a search for the “reality” it defines. For example, the article “What is dark energy” defines its casually in terms of an interaction of three-dimensional space with a fourth while others derive the quantum mechanical properties of energy/mass in terms of a resonant system formed by a matter wave on a “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

It is not meant to verify the many answers found in the book “The Reality of Four Spatial Dimensions”. Instead it is meant to give the scientific community the specific information and experiment techniques required to either verify or falsify it contents. It relies less on mathematics and more on conceptual logic and thought experiments (much like Albert Einstein did) to show how one can explain and predict all modern observations by extrapolating the rules defining classical three-dimensional space to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2015

“The universe’s most powerful enabling tool is not
knowledge or understanding but imagination
because it extends the reality of
one’s environment.”


Scientific irrationality: is it really necessary?

Quantum mechanics in a nutshell…Don’t look: waves. Look: particles

Do we really need Quantum Decoherence?

The casualty of time

Space-time or
four *spatial* dimensions?

Why does space exist?

Quantum energy distribution: a classical explanation

Observer created reality: a classical explanation

The dual realities of quantum mechanics:a classical explanation

The physical meaning of Schrödinger wave equation

Quantum entanglement: a classical explanation

The reality of the
“Big Crunch”

Why the “Big Rip” cannot happen

An Aristotelian perspective on Dark Matter and Quantum Mechanics

The Balmer series as an emergent property of space-time

The road to reality and why physicists have not found it.

Holding scientist’s accountable

A classical interpretation of the wave function

Why there is more matter than

The origin of time

Incorporating electromagnetism in General Relativity

Dark Matter as a field property of space-time

The abuse of imagination in physics

A classical explanation of Quantum Superposition

Articles posted in 2022. 2021, 2020, 2019, 2017 and 18, 2016, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009, 2008, and 2007

The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 1
2007 thru


Paper Back

The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 2
2011 thru


Paper Back

The Road to Unifying
QM with Relativity

part 3
2015 thru


Paper Back