Einstein provided a theatrical basis for an antigravity propulsion system when he used the constant velocity of light to mathematically define gravity in our universe.

The standard interpretation of his mathematics suggests that gravity is cause by a displacement in a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to time.

However an equally valid one defines gravity in terms of an environment consisting of only four *spatial* dimensions because by defining its geometric properties in terms of the equation E=mc^2 and the constant velocity of light gives one the ability to redefine a unit of time he associated with gravity in his space-time universe to unit of space in one consisting of only four *spatial* dimensions.

In other words it gives us mathematical way to convert a universe composed of four dimensional space-time to one made up of four *spatial* dimensions because one can define distance in it in terms of time times the constant velocity of light.

Even though these two interpretations yield the exactly the same numerical results describing our universe there is a very significant qualitative difference in that we observe we can only move in one direction forward with respect to a time dimension while in the spatial dimensions we can move in two direction upward or downwards backwards or forward.

This is significant because if gravity is caused by displacement in a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to spatial not a time dimension it may be possible to create a negative or antigravity potential in space.

In other words if gravity is cause by a displacement in a three dimensional space manifold with respect to a spatial instead of a time dimension it, at least in theory should possible to create an oppositely directed displacement which for all practical purposes would repel the gravitational field of normal matter and cause it to be propelled thought space.

It should be remember the existence of a time or space time dimension is the based exclusively on Einstein’s mathematics because no one has or will ever be able to directly observe it.

However the same could be said about a fourth *spatial* dimension in that it cannot be directly observed. But there is an experiment that could without ambiguity determine if our universe is physically made up of four *spatial* dimensions or four dimensional space-time.

As describe in the NewScientist article “Antimatter mysteries 3: Does antimatter fall up?” Apr 29, 2009, it is possible use uncharged particles to prevent electromagnetic forces from drowning out gravitational effects of antimatter. First we will be required to build highly unstable pairings of electrons and positrons, known as positronium, then excite them with lasers to prevent them annihilating too quickly. Clouds of antiprotons will rip these pairs apart, stealing their positrons to create neutral antihydrogen atoms.

Pulses of these anti-atoms shot horizontally through two grids of slits will create a fine pattern of impact and shadow on a detector screen. By measuring how the position of this pattern is displaced, the strength – and direction – of the gravitational force on antimatter can be measured

However if it is found the gravitational field of antiparticles opposes that of particles then we will be required to rethink our understanding gravity because Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity tells that objects that create gravitational field cause time to “move” slower with respect to a region of space that does not contain mass. In other words Einstein theory tells if antiparticle posses a negative gravitational potential time should be accelerated or move in the “opposite direction” were they exist with respect to the slowing he associated with gravity; something which would be observable in particle accelerators if it were to happen. The fact that this has not been observed tells us if antiparticles do have a negative gravitational potential it cannot be related to the physical property of a time dimension.

However as was mentioned earlier the fact that one can use Einsteinâ€™s equations to qualitatively and quantitatively redefine the energy he associated with gravity in a space time environment in terms of four *spatial* dimensions would give us a viable explanation for the negative gravitational potential antimatter that would be consistent with his theories.

In other words Einstein mathematics provided theatrical basis for an antigravity propulsion system because if gravity is cause by a displacement in a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a spatial instead of a time dimension it, at least in theory should possible to create an oppositely directed displacement which for all practical purposes would repel the gravitational field of normal matter and cause it to be propelled thought space.

Yet if found to be true it would not reduce Einstein’s genus because his theories and predictions were based on pure mathematics and as mentioned earlier a universe consisting of four dimensional space-time and four spatial dimensional are mathematically are equivalent in every respect.

Later Jeff

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2018