We have shown throughout "The Imagineer’s Chronicles" that it is more consistent with observations to define the universe in terms of four *spatial* dimensions instead of four-dimensional space-time.

Charged geometry of Matter

The electrical properties of quarks are one of those observations.

In the article "Why is energy/mass quantized?"  Oct. 4, 2007  it was shown the properties of a particle could be derived in terms of a resonant system formed on "surface" a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

However, observations of particles indicate they are made up of distinct components called quarks of which there are six types, the UP/Down, Charm/Strange and Top/Bottom.  The Up, Charm and Top have a fractional charge of 2/3.  The Down, Strange and Bottom have a fractional charge of -1/3.  Scientists have also determined that quarks can take on one of three different configurations they have designated by the colors red, blue, and green.

But if space was made up of four *spatial* dimensions one should be able to explain why quarks have a fractional charge and how they interact to form particles in terms of the geometry four *spatial* dimension.

The article Defining energy Nov. 26, 2007 showed it is possible to define all forms of energy including electrical in terms of a displacement in a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

However, we as three-dimensional beings can only observe three of the four spatial dimensions.  Therefore, the energy associated with a displacement in its "surface" with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension will be observed by us as being directed along that "surface".  However, because two of the three-dimensions we can observe are parallel to that surface we will observe it to have 2/3 of the total energy associated with that displacement and we will observe the other 1/3 as being directed along the signal dimension that is perpendicular to that surface.

This means the 2/3 fractional charge of the Up, Charm and Top may be related to the energy directed along a "surface" of a displaced three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a four *spatial* dimension while the -1/3 charge of The Down, Strange and Bottom may be associated with the energy that is directed perpendicular to that "surface".

The reason why quarks come in three configurations or colors with a fractional charge of 1/3 or 2/3 may be because, as was shown in the article Embedded Dimensions Nov. 22, 2007 there are three ways the individual axis of three-dimensional space can be oriented with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.  Therefore, the configuration or "colors" of each quark may be related to how its energy is distributed in three-dimensional space with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

However, it may also explain why it takes three quarks of different "colors" to form a particle because, as mentioned earlier one can define a particle in terms of a resonant system on a "surface" a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.  If the colors of each quark represent the central axis associated with its charge then to form a stable resonate system would require three quarks that have different central axis to balance its energy with respect to the axes of three-dimensional space.  A particle could not exist if two quarks have the same central axis or color because it would cause an energy imbalance along that axis.  Therefore, a particle consisting of anything but quarks of three different colors would not stable.

This shows that it may be possible to define the electrical properties of quarks and how they combine to form particles in terms of the geometry of four *spatial* dimensions.

Later Jeff

Copyright 2009 Jeffrey O’Callaghan


Anthology of
The Imagineer’s Chronicles
Vol. 1 thru 7

2007 thru 2016


The Reality
of the Fourth



The Imagineer’s
Vol. 7 — 2016



The Imagineer’s
Vol. 6 — 2015


The Imagineer’s
Vol. 5 — 2014


 The Imagineer’s
Vol. 4 — 2013 



The Imagineer’s
Vol. 3 — 2012


The Imagineer’s
Vol. 2 — 2011

The Imagineer’s
2007 thru 2010



10 Comments to “The geometry of quarks”

  1. FREE 11+ Practice Papers Online — August 25, 2010 @ 4:19 pm

    I am relatively new to the internet and needed to read up on this subject. Thought it was a wonderful article very well written and informative. I will definitely be coming back to your blog to read more articles as i loved this one..

  2. April Macaraeg — February 8, 2011 @ 5:20 am

    I’m extremely impressed with your writing skills and also with the layout on your weblog. Is this a paid theme or did you modify it yourself? Anyway keep up the nice quality writing, it is rare to see a great blog like this one today..

  3. psn free codes — February 13, 2011 @ 8:31 pm

    Thanks very much for your flawless website;this is the stuff that keeps me awake through out these day. I’ve been searching around for your site after asked to visit them from a colleague and was pleased when I found it after searching for awhile. Being a demanding blogger, I’m dazzled to see others taking initivative and contributing to the community. I just wanted to comment to show my support for your article as it is very encouraging, and many writers do not get acknowledgment they deserve. I am sure I’ll drop by again and will recommend to my friends.

  4. Julissa Kruschke — February 20, 2011 @ 3:31 am

    Hi. I needed to drop you a quick note to impart my thanks. I’ve been following your blog for a month or so and have picked up a heap of solid information as well as enjoyed the way you’ve structured your site. I am attempting to run my own blog however I think its too general and I would like to focus more on smaller topics.

  5. Conveyancing solicitors — March 8, 2011 @ 12:05 am

    Can I just say what a relief to find someone who actually knows what theyre talking about on the web. You definitely have learned to bring an issue to light and make it important. More people need to read this and understand this side of the story. I cant believe youre not more popular because you definitely have the gift

  6. MT Online Banking — April 4, 2011 @ 5:18 am

    I like this blog its a master peace ! .

  7. product review — April 8, 2011 @ 9:55 pm

    Hey very nice blog!!. I don’t usually reply to posts but I will in this case. WoW A lot more Agreeable.

  8. Jacklyn Inciong — October 20, 2011 @ 1:40 pm

    Hi there, You’ve done an incredible job. I will definitely digg it and personally suggest to my friends. I’m sure they’ll be benefited from this site.

  9. Muoi — July 21, 2014 @ 11:14 am

    I’ve been surfing online more than 4 hours today, yet I never found any
    interesting article like yours. It’s pretty worth enough for me.
    In my view, if all webmasters and blogters made good content aas youu did,
    the net wull be much more useful than ever before.

  10. live chat software — June 13, 2017 @ 11:30 am

    Hi, I do believe this is a great web site.
    I stumbledupon it 😉 I’m going to revisit once again since i have saved as a favorite it.
    Money and freedom is the best way to change, may you be rich
    and continue to help others.

Write a comment



The Imagineer's Chronicles is based on WordPress platform, RSS tech , RSS comments design by Gx3.