In physics, the conservation laws state the measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time. They include the laws of conservation of energy, linear momentum, angular momentum, and electric charge.
However these laws suggest the existence of another more fundamental one that physically defines their causality.
Einstein’s General Relativity, from 1905 to 2005 – Kip Thorne – 
For example Einstein told us that time dilates and space contracts as the energy and momentum of reference frames increase.
In other words there appears to a one to one correspondence between the effects momentum and energy has on the dimensional properties of spacetime.
However the fact that the energy and momentum have a common effect on those properties suggests there may be a physical connection between them and their conservation laws.
For example Einstein told us the mass of a particle created in accelerators increases the curvature in spacetime causing the physical distance between two points external to it to decrease by a measurable amount. If that particle decays that curvature returns to where it was before that mass was created. In other words physical properties of space are conserved in the creation, destruction or redistribution of mass. Additionally he also told us that concentrating it in the form of a particle causes time to dilate by a measurable amount with respect to its external spacetime environment and when that particle decays time is returned to normal rate of change.
In other words in all reactions involving mass the physical properties of spacetime are conserved because they always return to their original value before it was either created or destroyed.
One can also connect the causality of the law of conservation of all forms of energy to the physical properties of a spacetime environment.
For example it can be shown the causality of charge conservation is also directly related to the symmetries of the spacetime environment defined by Einstein.
However it will be easier to explain if one coverts it to its equivalent in four *spatial* dimensions.
(The reason will become obvious later on in this discussion.)
Einstein gave us the ability to do this when defined the geometric properties of spacetime in terms of the constant velocity of light because that provided a method of converting a unit of time in a spacetime environment to a unit of space in four *spatial* dimensions. Additionally because the velocity of light is constant he also defined a one to one quantitative and qualitative correspondence between his spacetime universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.
The fact that one can use Einstein’s theories to qualitatively and quantitatively derive the displacement he associated with energy in a spacetime universe in terms of four *spatial* dimensions is the bases for assuming as was done in the article “Defining energy” Nov 27, 2007 that all forms of energy including those associated with charge can be derived in terms of a spatial displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
This allows one to derive the physical properties of charge in terms a displacement in that "surface" with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
For example if one raises a cup of water above its surface it will be given a measurable amount of potential energy with respect to that surface while at the same time a force will be developed that will be directed downward towards it. Additionally the level of the water will be lowered by the exact amount that was removed by the lifting of the cup above its surface. If one pours the water back the levels will return it original depth. In other words the level of the water is conserved due to the symmetry of its surface levels.
However as was shown in the article “Defining energy” Nov 27, 2007 if one raises, with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension the volume of threedimension space associated with a charge it will be given a measurable amount of potential energy with respect to that "surface" while at the same time a force will be developed that will be directed downward towards it. Additionally the energy level of threedimensional space not associate with that charge will be lowered by the exact same amount. If one calls the volume space that was raised up a negative charge one would call the lowering of the "surface" of three dimension space caused by that a positive charge. If one neutralizes the negative charge by bring it in contact with that "surface" it will return to its original level and the charge will be neutralized. This shows how one can derive the causality of charge conservation in term of the symmetry imposed by Einstein theories.
In other words symmetry imposed by Einstein’s spacetime environment means that charge must be conserved because the creation of one must always be offset by the other.
This is true in environments consisting of either four *spatial* dimensions or four dimensional spacetime because as was shown earlier they are quantitative and qualitative interchangeable.
However it also allows one to understand how the conservation laws of nature are physically connected to each other in terms of the physical geometry of our universe.
It should be remember Einstein’s genius allows us to choose to derive the conservation laws either a spacetime environment or one consisting of four *spatial* dimension when he defined their environments in terms energy and the constant velocity of light. This interchangeability broadens the environment encompassed by his theories thereby giving us a new perspective on the origins of the conservation laws of physics.
Later Jeff
Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2016
One of the most difficult question one can ask a physicists or anyone for that matter is what is time because it does not have a physical presence. This may be the reasons some define it only in the abstract saying that is an invention of the human consciousness that gives us a sense of order, a before and after so to speak of the changes that occur in our environment.
What Is Time? Determinism, Quantum Physics, Consciousness, Free Will, Causality. 
However physicists are not afforded the option of an abstract definition because they have defined gravity in terms of the physical curvature in a spacetime dimension. For example, a physical curvature in spacetime is viewed by many physicists to be causality of the force of gravity.
In other words to be consistent they should be able to define it in terms of its physicality.
Yet it is possible that time may be something which cannot be defined by a what but may be an effect similar to how color is not a something but is an effect cause by how light is reflected by a something. If this is true physicist’s would have to find another way to define gravity other that one that depends on the interactions of space and time defined by Einstein.
Another question that is difficult to answer is if nothing in the universe changed would time still exist.
Answering this question may provide an answer as to what time is because if change is the causality of our perception of time then understanding what causes it in the spacetime environment that physicist’s say we live may help us to understand how it is connected to our environment.
However, as Einstein suggested in the following quote time cannot not be physically connected to the process of change because it is a rigid unchanging component of a spacetime environment defined by both his Special and General Theories of Relatively and therefore could not be responsible of the dynamic process associated with change.
"Since there exists in this four dimensional structure [spacetime] no longer any sections which represent "now" objectively, the concepts of happening and becoming are indeed not completely suspended, but yet complicated. It appears therefore more natural to think of physical reality as a four dimensional existence, instead of, as hitherto, the evolution of a threedimensional existence."
In other words according to Einstein the structure of spacetime is ridge while the changes we associated with time are merely an illusion similar to the illusion of change created in a flip book when one rapidly flips through its pages containing series of pictures that vary gradually from one page to the next.
Yet this means if, as he suggested the time dimension is not responsible for the "evolution of a threedimensional existence" some other geometric property of the our universe must be physically connected to it to allow change to propagated through it.
Therefore to understand the "evolution of a threedimensional existence" one would have to explain how the change propagates through it without referring to a time dimension.
Einstein gave us the ability to do this when he defined the energy associated with the evolution of a spacetime environment in terms of the equation E=mc^2 the constant velocity of light because that provided a method of converting a unit time and redefine the energy in that environment to its equivalent in four *spatial* dimensions. Additionally because the velocity of light is constant he also defined a one to one quantitative and qualitative correspondence between his spacetime universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.
In other words he tells the physical properties of a spacetime geometry are related to an observer’s interpretation similar to how the measurements of their magnitudes are related an observer’s velocity. This is because, as was show above one can reinterpret the mathematics associated with the time dimension in an environment consisting of four dimensional spacetime with a spatial one to create one in only four *spatial* dimensions with identical properties. However one must be careful not to think of this as the physical replacement of the time dimension in Einstein’s universe with a spatial one because according to his mathematics they coexist in the same geometric plain.
Additionally the fact that the equation E=mc^2 allows us to quantitatively derive energy in a spacetime environment in terms of four *spatial* dimensions is the bases for assuming as was done in the article “Defining energy” Nov 27, 2007 that all forms of change can be derived in terms of a displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension instead of one in a spacetime manifold.
Doing would also allow physicists to define gravity and energy in terms that do not depend on time or the interactions of space and time defined by Einstein.
Additionally it would allow one to understand how the geometric properties of space interact to create the change associated with time in terms of a physical image without using it because we can "see" or perceive how a void in space created by any displacement causes change where, as was mentioned earlier we cannot with time.
For example, we can physically observe how the energy stored in the displacement of water in dam causes change in an environment when it is released or allowed to flow over it. In other words we can form a physical image of the causality of the changing level of water in a dam in terms of its movement through the spatial void between its top and bottom.
Similarly one can form a clear physical image of how and why change occurs in our threedimensional environment by assuming the energy stored in a spatial displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension is released though the "void" that displacement creates in four dimensional space.
This suggest the change most associate with time may be an effect caused by an interaction of a fourth spatial dimension with our three dimension environment.
In other words similar to how an the color of an apple is an effect created by an interaction between light and its surface time may be the effect of a physical interaction of our threedimensional environment with a four *spatial* dimension.
It should be remember Einstein’s mathematical model which defines the physical geometry of our universe tells us that an all objects must simultaneously exist in both a spacetime environment and one consisting of four spatial dimension because as was shown above one can use his mathematics to define two identical universes; one in four dimensional time and another made up of only four *spatial* dimensions. Which one we use to define our reality is dependent on how an observer interprets his mathematics.
Later Jeff
Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2016
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