In physics, the conservation laws state the measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time. They include the laws of conservation of energy, linear momentum, angular momentum, and electric charge.
However these laws suggest the existence of another more fundamental one that physically defines their causality.
Einstein’s General Relativity, from 1905 to 2005 – Kip Thorne – 
For example Einstein told us that time dilates and space contracts as the energy and momentum of reference frames increase.
In other words there appears to a one to one correspondence between the effects momentum and energy has on the dimensional properties of spacetime.
However the fact that the energy and momentum have a common effect on those properties suggests there may be a physical connection between them and their conservation laws.
For example Einstein told us the mass of a particle created in accelerators increases the curvature in spacetime causing the physical distance between two points external to it to decrease by a measurable amount. If that particle decays that curvature returns to where it was before that mass was created. In other words physical properties of space are conserved in the creation, destruction or redistribution of mass. Additionally he also told us that concentrating it in the form of a particle causes time to dilate by a measurable amount with respect to its external spacetime environment and when that particle decays time is returned to normal rate of change.
In other words in all reactions involving mass the physical properties of spacetime are conserved because they always return to their original value before it was either created or destroyed.
One can also connect the causality of the law of conservation of all forms of energy to the physical properties of a spacetime environment.
For example it can be shown the causality of charge conservation is also directly related to the symmetries of the spacetime environment defined by Einstein.
However it will be easier to explain if one coverts it to its equivalent in four *spatial* dimensions.
(The reason will become obvious later on in this discussion.)
Einstein gave us the ability to do this when defined the geometric properties of spacetime in terms of the constant velocity of light because that provided a method of converting a unit of time in a spacetime environment to a unit of space in four *spatial* dimensions. Additionally because the velocity of light is constant he also defined a one to one quantitative and qualitative correspondence between his spacetime universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.
The fact that one can use Einstein’s theories to qualitatively and quantitatively derive the displacement he associated with energy in a spacetime universe in terms of four *spatial* dimensions is the bases for assuming as was done in the article “Defining energy” Nov 27, 2007 that all forms of energy including those associated with charge can be derived in terms of a spatial displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
This allows one to derive the physical properties of charge in terms a displacement in that "surface" with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
For example if one raises a cup of water above its surface it will be given a measurable amount of potential energy with respect to that surface while at the same time a force will be developed that will be directed downward towards it. Additionally the level of the water will be lowered by the exact amount that was removed by the lifting of the cup above its surface. If one pours the water back the levels will return it original depth. In other words the level of the water is conserved due to the symmetry of its surface levels.
However as was shown in the article “Defining energy” Nov 27, 2007 if one raises, with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension the volume of threedimension space associated with a charge it will be given a measurable amount of potential energy with respect to that "surface" while at the same time a force will be developed that will be directed downward towards it. Additionally the energy level of threedimensional space not associate with that charge will be lowered by the exact same amount. If one calls the volume space that was raised up a negative charge one would call the lowering of the "surface" of three dimension space caused by that a positive charge. If one neutralizes the negative charge by bring it in contact with that "surface" it will return to its original level and the charge will be neutralized. This shows how one can derive the causality of charge conservation in term of the symmetry imposed by Einstein theories.
In other words symmetry imposed by Einstein’s spacetime environment means that charge must be conserved because the creation of one must always be offset by the other.
This is true in environments consisting of either four *spatial* dimensions or four dimensional spacetime because as was shown earlier they are quantitative and qualitative interchangeable.
However it also allows one to understand how the conservation laws of nature are physically connected to each other in terms of the physical geometry of our universe.
It should be remember Einstein’s genius allows us to choose to derive the conservation laws either a spacetime environment or one consisting of four *spatial* dimension when he defined their environments in terms energy and the constant velocity of light. This interchangeability broadens the environment encompassed by his theories thereby giving us a new perspective on the origins of the conservation laws of physics.
Later Jeff
Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2016
01

Have you ever wondered why so many seeming rational scientists make seemly irrational assumptions to explain why our universe behaves the way it does and why Einstein was unable see, as Robert Oerter pointed out in his book "The Theory of Almost Everything: the magic of relativistic Quantum electrodynamics or QED.
For example he tells one reason he may have felt this way is because it defines the charge around a solitary electron as being caused by the spontaneous creation and evaporation of virtual electronpositron pairs which then instantaneously disappear. In other words when a virtual electronpositron pair is created near the (real) electron, the (imaginary) virtual positron will be attracted toward the real electron, while the virtual electron is repelled. Therefore there should be a resulting separation of charge
I think most rational people would consider someone irrational if they tried to convince l us the reason why they were late for work was because a swam of virtual or imaginary cars were blocking the road and disappeared after we showed up.
Shouldn’t we hold our scientists to the same degree of rationality?
Most who have studied the history of science are aware that Einstein was vehemently opposed to many of the fundamental components of quantum mechanics such as the existence of virtual particle’s to explain an isolated charge.
This was true even though he was able, in his General Theory of Relativity to derive the force of gravity in terms of the geometry of space and time while being unable to do the same for electromagnetism and charge, as was documented by the American Institute of Physics.
"From before 1920 until his death in 1955, Einstein struggled to find laws of physics far more general than any known before. In his Theory of Relativity, the force of gravity had become an expression of the geometry of space and time. The other forces in nature, above all the force of electromagnetism, had not been described in such terms. But it seemed likely to Einstein that electromagnetism and gravity could both be explained as aspects of some broader mathematical structure. The quest for such an explanation — for a "unified field" theory that would unite electromagnetism and gravity, space and time, all together — occupied more of Einstein’s years than any other activity".
One reason why it was difficult of him to visualize electromagnetic fields including those around a single charge may have been because he chose to define the universe in terms of four dimensional spacetime instead of four *spatial* dimensions because, as will be shown below it easier to visualize the properties of electrometric waves and charge in terms of their spatial rather time or spacetime properties.
However he did provide a method of understanding them in terms of their common properties when he chose to define gravity in a spacetime environment in terms of the equation E=mc^2 and constant velocity of light because that give him the ability to redefined it terms of the spatial properties of four *spatial* dimensions. Additionally because the velocity of light is constant he also defined a one to one quantitative and qualitative correspondence between his spacetime universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.
The fact that one can use Einstein’s equations to qualitatively and quantitatively redefine the curvature in spacetime he associated with gravity in terms of four *spatial* dimensions is one bases for assuming as was done in the article “Defining energy?” Nov 27, 2007 that all forces can be derived in terms of a spatial displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
One of the advantages to using this technique is that it allows one to define the physicality of gravitational and electrical forces including those around a single electron in the same terms.
For example In the article "Gravity in four spatial dimensions" Dec. 15, 2007 it was shown one can derive gravitational forces in terms of curvature or physical displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension as well as one in a four dimensional spacetime environment.
However the article "What is electromagnetism?" Sept, 27 2007 showed one can also derive the forces associated with electromagnetism in terms of a similar displacement in the "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
Briefly that article showed it is possible to derive the forces associated with an electromagnetic wave by extrapolating the laws of Classical Wave Mechanics in a threedimensional environment to a matter wave moving on a "surface" of threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
A wave on the twodimensional surface of water causes a point on that surface to be become displaced or rise above or below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present. A force will be developed by the differential displacement of the surfaces, which will result in the elevated and depressed portions of the water moving towards or become "attracted" to each other and the surface of the water.
Similarly a matter wave on the "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension would cause a point on that "surface" to become displaced or rise above and below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present.
Therefore, classical wave mechanics, if extrapolated to four *spatial* dimensions tells us a force will be developed by the differential displacements caused by a matter wave moving on a "surface" of threedimensional space with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension that will result in its elevated and depressed portions moving towards or become "attracted" to each other.
This defines the causality of the attractive forces of unlike charges associated with the electromagnetic wave component of a photon in terms of a force developed by a differential displacement of a point on a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
However, it also provides a classical mechanism for understanding why similar charges repel each other because observations of water show that there is a direct relationship between the magnitudes of a displacement in its surface to the magnitude of the force resisting that displacement.
Similarly the magnitude of a displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension caused by two similar charges will be greater than that caused by a single one. Therefore, similar charges will repel each other because the magnitude of the force resisting the displacement will be greater for two charges than it would be for a single charge.
One can define the causality of electrical component of electromagnetic radiation in terms of the energy associated with its "peaks" and "troughs" that is directed perpendicular to its velocity vector while its magnetic component would be associated with the horizontal force developed by that perpendicular displacement.
However, Classical Mechanics tells us a horizontal force will be developed by that perpendicular or vertical displacement which will always be 90 degrees out of phase with it. This force is called magnetism.
This is analogous to how the vertical force pushing up of on mountain also generates a horizontal force, which pulls matter horizontally towards the apex of that displacement.
However, as was mentioned earlier gravity can also be explain in terms of a differential force caused by a displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
This shows how one can define a common mechanism for the causality of both electromagnetism and gravity in terms of a "unified field" consisting of four *spatial* dimension by extrapolating the laws of classical mechanics in a threedimensional environment to four *spatial* dimensions.
In other words one can visualize the fact that unlike charge attract each other while like ones repel in terms of the asymmetrical properties of spacetime or four spatial dimensions.
Einstein was unable to accomplish this in terms of fourdimensional spacetime because time is only observe to move in one direction forwards and therefore making it difficult to visualize the bidirectional movement of the spatial component of a matter wave moving on its "surface" that is responsible for electromagnetism .
However it also give a more rational explanation of the charge around a solitary electron than the spontaneous creation and evaporation of virtual electronpositron pairs because it shows that it can be understood in terms of a physical displacement in a "surface" of a threedimension space manifold with respect to fourth spatial dimension.
In other words it shows that electric forces are related to a physical displacement in a surface of a three dimensional space manifold with respect to a either a higher spatial or time dimension thereby eliminating the need to evoke the existence of virtual electronpositron pairs to understand the behavior of a charge around a solitary electron.
It should be remember Einstein’s genius allows us to choose to define charge in either a spacetime environment or one consisting of four *spatial* dimension when he defined that environment in terms mass energy and the constant velocity of light. This interchangeability broadens the environment encompassed by his theories thereby giving us a new perspective on the physicality of charge.
Latter Jeff
Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2016
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