The concept of a field was developed when physicists learned that they could simplify the calculations of the forces involved in planetary motion by assuming or imagining the existence of a continuous gravitational field. They defined this field in such a way that if another planet were put at any point in that field the resulting force between any other planets would be exactly the Newtonian one. This simplified the calculations of planetary motion because it allowed them to isolate and analyze the forces of one planet on another instead of trying to analyze the forces exerted on a planet by the others at the same time.
Originally, many thought this was just a trick to simplify calculations.
But Michael Faraday, while researching electromagnetism discovered that a continuous field has real physical properties and therefore was able to convince others that is was more the just a calculating device.
However quantum mechanical assumes that all forces both attractive and repulsive are propagated by particles.
It is easy to understand how particles can be responsible for repulsive forces because our every day experiences tell us that a force is generated when two objects collide that causes them to move apart or repel each other.
However this is not the case with attractive forces because no has ever observed two objects moving towards or being attracted to each other after a collision.
Therefore scientists have to create or imagine what are called "virtual particles" which by their own admission do not exist, except in the math to explain attractive forces in terms of particle interaction.
Granted they assume that virtual particles exhibit some of the properties that "real" particles do, such as obedience to the conservation laws however they differ in that they when they collide or interact with "real" particles they cause them to attract instead of repulsing each other as is the case when two real particles interact.
One problem with this assumption is that no has or ever will observe a virtual photon because as mentioned earlier by definition they do not exist. Another more damaging one is that it is very difficult to devise a realistic mechanism based on observations that can account for how something that does not exist in the real world can interact with something that does to cause the observed properties of a repulsive force.
However one can define the mechanism responsible for both the attractive and repulsive forces of files by extrapolating observations of a classical three-dimensional environment to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
The reason why is because the force of a field effects the spatial not the time or space-time properties of an environment.
Einstein gave us the ability to do this when he used the constant velocity of light to define the geometric properties of space-time because it provided a method of converting a unit of time in a space-time environment to unit of space in four *spatial* dimensions Additionally because the velocity of light is constant he also defined a one to one quantitative correspondence between his space-time universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.
The advantage of this is that it allows one to define the physicality of faraday fields in terms of their observable spatial instead of their unobservable time properties.
For example the article "What is electromagnetic energy" Sep 27, 2009 showed one can physically derive the forces of electromagnetism by extrapolating the physical properties of a three-dimensional environment to a matter wave moving on a "surface" of a three-dimensional space with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
However as that article one also can derive electromagnetism in terms of spatial displacement of a "surface" of a three dimensional space manifold with respect to fourth *spatial* dimension
For example a wave on the two-dimensional surface of water causes a point on that surface to be become displaced or rise above or below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present. A force will be developed by the differential displacement of the surfaces, which will result in the elevated and depressed portions of the water moving towards or become "attracted" to each other and the surface of the water.
Similarly a matter wave on the "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension would cause a point on that "surface" to become displaced or rise above and below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present.
Therefore, classical wave mechanics, if extrapolated to four *spatial* dimensions tells us the force developed by the differential displacements caused by a matter wave moving on a "surface" of three-dimensional space with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension will result in its elevated and depressed portions moving towards or become "attracted" to each other.
However, it also provides a classical mechanism for understanding why similar charges repel each other because observations of water show that there is a direct relationship between the magnitudes of a displacement in its surface to the magnitude of the force resisting that displacement.
Similarly the magnitude of a displacement in a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension caused by two similar charges will be greater than that caused by a single one. Therefore, similar charges will repel each other because the magnitude of the force resisting the displacement will be greater for two similar charges than it would be for a single charge.
One can define the causality of electrical component of electromagnetic radiation in terms of the energy associated with its "peaks" and "troughs" that is directed perpendicular to its velocity vector while its magnetic component would be associated with the horizontal force developed by that perpendicular displacement.
However, Classical Mechanics tells us a horizontal force will be developed by that perpendicular or vertical displacement which will always be 90 degrees out of phase with it. This force is called magnetism.
This is analogous to how the vertical force pushing up of on mountain also generates a horizontal force, which pulls matter horizontally towards from the apex of that displacement.
In other words one can explain both the attractive and repulsive properties of electromagnetic fields field by without the need of assuming the existence of virtual particle by extrapolating observations of our three dimensional environment to a fourth spatial dimension.
However it also provides a method of linking electromagnetic field to their quantum mechanical properties because as the article "Why is energy/mass quantized?" Oct. 4, 2007 showed one can also explain them by extrapolating resonant properties of a field in classical a three-dimensional environment to a matter wave moving on a "surface" of a three-dimensional field with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
Briefly it showed the four conditions required for resonance to occur in a classical field, an object, or substance with a natural frequency, a forcing function at the same frequency as the natural frequency, the lack of a damping frequency and the ability for the substance to oscillate spatial would be meet by a matter wave in an environment consisting of four *spatial* dimensions.
The existence of four *spatial* dimensions would give a matter wave the ability to oscillate spatially on between a third and fourth *spatial* dimensions thereby fulfilling one of the requirements for classical resonance to occur.
These oscillations would be caused by an event such as the decay of a subatomic particle or the shifting of an electron in an atomic orbital. This would force the "surface" of a three-dimensional field (the substance) to oscillate with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension at the frequency associated with the energy of that event.
The oscillations caused by such an event would serve as forcing function allowing a resonant field to be established in four *spatial* dimensions.
Observations of a three-dimensional environment tell us that the energy of a resonant field can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with the fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental resonant
Similarly the energy of a resonant system in an environment consisting of four *spatial* dimensional environment could only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with the fundamental or a harmonic of a resonant system in that environment.
These resonant fields are responsible for the quantum mechanical properties of field
As article What is electromagnetic energy" Sep 27, 2009 showed one can derived both the attractive and repulsive properties of electromagnetic fields in terms of differential displacements created by a matter wave moving on a "surface" of a three-dimensional field with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension. While the article "Why is energy/mass quantized?" showed one can also derive their quantum mechanical properties of fields by extrapolating the laws governing resonance in a classical three-dimensional field to the differential displacement caused by a matter wave on that same surface of three dimensional space manifold with fourth *spatial* dimensions.
As was mentioned earlier scientists have to create or imagine what are called "virtual particles" which by their own admission do not exist, to explain attractive forces in terms of particle interaction.
However one does not have image anything to explain the repulsive properties of forces of fields and the quantum mechanical properties particles because as was shown above one can use the real physical properties of a continuous one made up of four *spatial* dimension.
Copyright 2012 Jeffrey O’Callaghan
Vol. 5 — 2014