Presently the Standard Model of Particle Physics links the quantum properties of the Gravitron with electromagnetism through mathematics

However, for the past 50 years brightest minds in the scientist community have been unable to observe the Gravitron or the particle it assumes it responsible for the force of gravity.

Some say this is because it interacts so weakly with matter that modern instruments are not sensitive enough to detect it even with, as mentioned earlier the recent exponential increase in their sensitivity.

However the reason may be because we have been looking in the wrong direction.

For example in the article " Linking Gravity with electromagnetism in four *spatial* dimensions" Dec. 15, 2007 it was shown that one can derive quantum properties of gravitational and electrical forces in terms of a displacement in a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension in a manner that makes prediction identical to those of General Relativity.

Einstein gave us the ability to derive gravity in terms of a displacement a "surface" of a three dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth spatial dimension when he defined the geometric properties of a space-time universe in terms of the equation E=mc^2 and the constant velocity of light because that provided a method of converting the displacement in space-time he associated with gravity to its equivalent displacement in four *spatial* dimensions. Additionally because the velocity of light is constant he also defined a one to one quantitative correspondence between his space-time universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.

However as that article one also can derive electromagnetism in terms of spatial displacement of a "surface" of a three dimensional space manifold with respect to fourth *spatial* dimension

For example a wave on the two-dimensional surface of water causes a point on that surface to be become displaced or rise above or below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present. A force will be developed by the differential displacement of the surfaces, which will result in the elevated and depressed portions of the water moving towards or become "attracted" to each other and the surface of the water.

Similarly a matter wave on the "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension would cause a point on that "surface" to become displaced or rise above and below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present.

Therefore, classical wave mechanics, if extrapolated to four *spatial* dimensions tells us the force developed by the differential displacements caused by a matter wave moving on a "surface" of three-dimensional space with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension will result in its elevated and depressed portions moving towards or become "attracted" to each other.

However, it also provides a classical mechanism for understanding why similar charges repel each other because observations of water show that there is a direct relationship between the magnitudes of a displacement in its surface to the magnitude of the force resisting that displacement.

Similarly the magnitude of a displacement in a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension caused by two similar charges will be greater than that caused by a single one. Therefore, similar charges will repel each other because the magnitude of the force resisting the displacement will be greater for two similar charges than it would be for a single charge.

One can define the causality of electrical component of electromagnetic radiation in terms of the energy associated with its "peaks" and "troughs" that is directed perpendicular to its velocity vector while its magnetic component would be associated with the horizontal force developed by that perpendicular displacement.

However, Classical Mechanics tells us a horizontal force will be developed by that perpendicular or vertical displacement which will always be 90 degrees out of phase with it. This force is called magnetism.

This is analogous to how the vertical force pushing up of on mountain also generates a horizontal force, which pulls matter horizontally towards from the apex of that displacement

This cannot be done in terms of four-dimensional space time because a time or a space-time dimension is only observed to move in one direction forward and therefore could not support the bidirectional movement required to create a differential displacement.

However it also provides a method of linking electromagnetic and gravitational forces to their quantum mechanical properties the Standard Model associated with the Gravitron because as the article " Why is energy/mass quantized? " Oct. 4, 2007 showed one can derive them by extrapolating the laws of classical resonance in a three-dimensional environment to a matter wave moving on a "surface" of a three dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

Briefly it showed the four conditions required for resonance to occur in a classical environment, an object, or substance with a natural frequency, a forcing function at the same frequency as the natural frequency, the lack of a damping frequency and the ability for the substance to oscillate spatial would be meet by a matter wave in an environment consisting of four *spatial* dimensions.

The existence of four *spatial* dimensions would give a matter wave the ability to oscillate spatially on a "surface" between a third and fourth *spatial* dimensions thereby fulfilling one of the requirements for classical resonance to occur.

These oscillations would be caused by an event such as the decay of a subatomic particle or the shifting of an electron in an atomic orbital. This would force the "surface" of a three-dimensional space (the substance) to oscillate with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension at the frequency associated with the energy of that event.

The oscillations caused by such an event would serve as forcing function allowing a resonant system or "structure" to be established in four *spatial* dimensions.

Observations of a three-dimensional environment tell us that the energy of a resonant system can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with the fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental resonant

Similarly the energy of a resonant system in an environment consisting of four *spatial* dimensional environment could only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with the fundamental or a harmonic of a resonant system in that environment.

These resonant systems are responsible for the quantum mechanical properties the energy/mass.

However the above theoretical model shows that the quantum unit of both gravity or the Gravitron and electromagnetism; the photon share a common origin in a resonant system and therefore would interact with each other. This suggests that instead of looking for gravitons effect on matter one would be more likely to find it by observe the random effects it would have on the movement of extremely light particles such as low frequency photons.

This random effect would be amplified by the distance traveled so with our advanced technologies if it exists we should be able to observe a difference between photons with nearby verse ones with far away origins.

Later Jeff

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2012