One of the most fundamental questions in physics and cosmology is why the physical constants are what they are.
For example the fine structure constant is one of the about 22 empirical parameters in the Standard Model of particle physics, whose value is not determined within it.
In other words their values are not determined by theory but by experimentation.
An even more puzzling question is why a certain number of them lie within a very narrow range, so that if any were only slightly different, the Universe would be unable to develop matter, astronomical structures, elemental diversity, or life as we presently understand it.
However there are several theoretical models that attempt to explain why we live in a universe that is so fine tuned for life.
For example the Multiverse class of theories assumes the value of the fundamental constants vary randomly though out many different universes and that we happen to live in one that have the values that will support life.
In other words they all assume the existence of many universes, each with randomly chosen physical constants, some of which are hospitable to intelligent life and because we are intelligent beings, we are by definition in a hospitable one.
However all of then suffer from the same problem in that are not verifiable or falsifiable because by definition universes are closed systems and cannot interact with each other. Therefore because they cannot interact with ours there is no way to verify or falsify their existence.
This is why Critics of the Multiverse-related explanations argue that they are unscientific because there is no way to experimentally verify or falsify their existence.
Yet the reason why we live in a universe in which the values of fundamental constants are fine tuned to allow life to developed may not be due to a random property of their origins but may be because they are preordained to have those values by a dynamic resonant property of energy/mass defined by Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity and his equation E=mc^2.
In other words the fundamental constants are what they are because they correspond to the most stable configuration of energy/mass possible.
For example a guitar string has a frequency at which it will naturally resonant at due, in part to the tension it is experiencing, and will, if allowed to, drift towards and stabilize at that optimal value.
Similarly the values of the fundamental constants associated with the resonant structure of energy/mass defined by Einstein would have a tendency to drift towards and stabilize at their optimal value.
However if it is true that the fundament constants are due to a dynamic resonant property of energy/mass one should be able to determine their values, including that of fine structure and cosmological constant by measuring the components of the resonant system it creates.
The dynamic relationship between mass and energy defined by the equation E=mc^2 tell us that they are oppositely directed in the sense that if one increases the other must decrease. However this also tells that whenever they interact a resonant structure would be formed whose fundamental frequency would be determined in part by the "tension" created their oppositely directed components similar to how the frequency of a guitar string also depends on the tension it is under.
This suggest that the magnitude of the fine structure constant may be the result of a resonant structure formed by the "tension" created between the mass and the oppositely directed quantized electrical energy of its components defined by the equation E=mc^2. Additionally because of the dynamic properties of energy/mass discussed above its value will adjust and stabilize around one that defines the optimal resonant structure for those components.
In other words the value of fine structure constant may not be a random feature of our universe but is determine by a dynamic relationship between energy/mass and its quantized components.
However if it is true that the values of all of the fundamental constants are due to resonant property of energy/mass defined by Einstein then, as with the fine structure constant one should also be able to determine the value of the cosmological constant in terms of those resonant properties.
The dynamic relationship between mass and energy describe above tells us that the universe’s expansion would form a resonant structure whose fundamental frequency would be determined by the relative strengths of the "tension" associated with the kinetic energy of its expansion and the gravitational contractive forces associated with its mass. Again this would be similar to how the fundamental frequency at which a guitar string resonates depends upon the tension of its strings.
This means the value of the cosmology constant associated with the universe’s expansion may be related to the dynamic resonant properties of energy and mass and not to some random function as is assumed by most of Multiverse theories.
As mentioned earlier Einstein General Theory of Relativity tells us there is a dynamic balance between the universe’s gravitational potential energy and the kinetic energy associated with its expansion. However, not all of the energy associated with that expansion is directed towards it because of the random motion of its energy/mass components. For example, observations indicate that some stars and galaxies are moving towards not away from us. Therefore, not all of the kinetic energy present at the time of its origin is directed towards its expansion.
Additionally the equation E=mc^2 which defines the equivalence between mass and energy tells us the kinetic energy of the universe’s expansion also posses gravitational potential.
However the law of conservation of energy/mass tells that energy/mass cannot be created or destroyed in a closed environment. This also tells us since, by definition the universe is closed system the kinetic energy of the universe’s energy/mass cannot exceed its gravitational contractive properties of its mass because Einstein tells us that its kinetic energy is made up of that mass.
Therefore because some of the kinetic energy of its components is not directed towards its expansion the total gravitational contractive properties of its energy/mass must exceed the kinetic energy of its expansive components. Which means at some point in time the gravitation contractive potential of its energy/mass must exceed the kinetic energy of its expansion because as just mentioned not all of its kinetic energy is directed towards its expansion. Therefore at that point, in time the universe will have to enter a contractive phase.
(Many physicists would disagree because recent observations suggest that a force called Dark energy is causing the expansion of the universe accelerate. Therefore they believe that its expansion will continue forever. However, as was shown in the article "Dark Energy and the evolution of the universe" if one assumes the law of conservation of mass/energy is valid, as we have done here than the gravitational contractive properties of its mass equivalent will eventually exceed its expansive energy associated with dark energy and therefore the universe must at some time in the future enter a contractive phase.)
We know from observations that heat is generated when we compress a gas and that this heat creates pressure that opposes further contractions.
Similarly the contraction of the universe will create heat which will oppose its further contractions.
Therefore the velocity of contraction will increase until the momentum of the galaxies, planets, components of the universe equals the radiation pressure generated by the heat of its contraction.
At this point in time the total kinetic energy of the collapsing universe would be equal and oppositely directed with respect to the radiation pressure associated with the heat of its collapse. From this point on the velocity of the contraction will slow due to the radiation pressure and be maintained by the momentum associated with the remaining mass component of the universe.
However, after a certain point in time the heat and radiation pressure generated by its contraction will become great enough to ionize the remaining mass and cause it to reexpand because the expansive forces associated with the radiation pressure will exceed the contractive forces associated with its mass.
This will result in the universe entering an expansive phase and going through another age of recombination when the comic background radiation was emitted. The reason it will experience an age of recombination as it passes through each cycle is because the heat of its collapse would be great enough to completely ionize all forms of matter.
However, at some point in time the contraction phase will begin again because as mentioned earlier its kinetic energy cannot exceed the gravitational energy associated with the total mass/energy in the universe.
Since the universe is a closed system, the amplitude of the expansions and contractions will drift and stabilize at a specific value corresponding to its resonant frequency similar to how a guitar string drift and stabilize at it’s resonant frequency
This results in the universe experiencing in a never-ending cycle of expansions and contractions whose frequency would be defined by its resonant properties.
Many cosmologists do not accept this cyclical scenario of expansion and contractions because they believe a collapsing universe would end in the formation of a singularity similar to the ones found in a black hole and therefore, it could not re-expand.
However, according to the first law of thermodynamic the universe would have to begin expanding before it reached a singularity because that law states that energy in an isolated system can neither be created nor destroyed
Therefore because the universe is by definition an isolated system; the energy generated by its gravitational collapse cannot be radiated to another volume but must remain within it. This means the radiation pressure exerted by its collapse must eventually exceed momentum of its contraction and the universe would have to enter an expansion phase because its momentum will carry it beyond the equilibrium point were the radiation pressure is greater that the momentum of its mass.
This would be analogous to the how momentum of a mass on a spring causes it to stretch beyond its equilibrium point resulting it osculating around it.
There can be no other interpretation if one assumes the validity of the first law of thermodynamics which states that the total energy is a closed system is defined its mass and the momentum of its components. Therefore, when one decreases the other must increase and therefore it must oscillate around a point in space and time.
The reason a singularity can form in black hole is because it is not an isolate system therefore the thermal radiation associated with its collapse can be radiated into the surrounding space. Therefore, its collapse can continue because momentum of its mass can exceed the radiation pressure cause by its collapse in the volume surrounding a black hole.
If this theoretical model is valid the heat generated by the collapse of the universe must raise the temperature to a point where it energy/mass would become ionized into their component parts thereby making the universe opaque to radiation. It would remain that way until it entered the expansion phase and cooled enough to allow them become deionized. This Age of Recombination, as cosmologists like to call it is the causality of the Cosmic Background Radiation.
As mentioned earlier the frequency of the expansions and contractions of all resonant systems is defined by their resonant properties.
Similarly the resonant structure created by the contractive properties of universe’s gravitational potential and the kinetic energy of its expansion will also have a natural frequency which would be determine by resonant properties. Like all resonant structures any frequencies that do not correspond to that value will be attenuated.
Therefore the value of the cosmologic constant which would define the rate or frequency at which the universe is expanding or contracting would be determined by the resonant properties of energy/mass define by Einstein.
In other words the value of its cosmological constant may not be randomly chosen but would be defined by the physical relationship between mass and kinetic energy defined by Einstein.
This means one could experimentally quantify and this scenario by using Einstein equations to determine the value of the cosmology constant based on that relationship and see if it agrees with its observed value.
In other words it is not necessary to assume the existence of multiple universes to understand why fundamental physical constants lie within a very narrow range that allows life to develop because their values may not be random chosen but are preordained to have them by a physical property of energy and mass defines by Einstein.
As mentioned earlier many Critics of the Multiverse-related explanations argue that there is no evidence or any way of verifying or falsifying the existence of other universes.
However we can observe and verify the existence of the resonant properties of energy and mass and if want we have said above is true that values all of the fundamental constants in physics are related to those resonant properties them it would be falsified if it was found that the value of even one of them could not be derived using that concept.
Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2014
The existence of antimatter was predicted by Paul Dirac when he realized his relativistic quantum theory of an electron yielded up twice as many solutions as he thought he needed. Two of the solutions correspond to the spin-up and spin-down orientations of the electron. So what did the other two solutions correspond to? He had some ideas of his own, but finally conceded in 1931 that they had to represent the spin-up and spin-down orientations of a previously unknown positive electron. Dirac had discovered anti-matter. The ‘positron’, the anti-particle of the electron, was subsequently found in experiments on cosmic rays, formed high in the earth’s atmosphere by collisions involving high-energy particles.
This is because the equation that it not only works for an electron with negative charge, it also works for a particle that behaves like an electron with positive charge. At first, Dirac did not appreciate the significance of this finding, and even ignored it out of what he would call “pure cowardice”.
However he soon realized this meant that every particle has a symmetrical or mirror-image antiparticle with nearly identical properties, except for an opposite electric charge. And just as protons, neutrons and electrons combine to form atoms and matter, antiprotons, antineutrons and anti-electrons (called positrons) combine to form anti-atoms and antimatter.
Yet this presents a problem because if one assumes particles are three-dimensional objects occupying a four dimensional *spatial*-time environment the only thing they can be symmetrical or “image” against would be the time dimension.
This is why in Quantum electrodynamics antiparticles are represented as their particle brothers moving backwards in time.
The problem is no one has ever observed time to move backwards. How then can we justify defining antiparticles in terms of the existence of negative time when it has never been observed?
Additionally the only way to define the asymmetrical or oppositely directed mass component of antiparticles is by assuming they are made up of negative mass because the only term other than mass in relativistic formula that defines its energy or E=mc^2 is squared and therefore is always positive. However this means that one cannot define the asymmetrical relativistic properties of matter and antimatter in terms of a negative time because in the equation defining it’s relation to mass it is squared therefore its energy component must always be positive. In other words the energy component of a mass moving in both time and negative time will always have the same sign or direction and therefore one cannot use it to define its asymmetrical properties.
Granted some like Richard Feynman have tried to use vectors to define negative energy/mass associated with anti-particles by assuming time moves backwards in them with respect to particles. However, this methodology cannot define its “reality” in terms of Special Relativity because, as was just mentioned the time component of energy/mass in Relativistic formulas is squared which means that energy must always be positive.
Additionally even thought the equations of Relativity permit time to move backwards no one has ever observed that to happen.
Some would argue that that is the only way in which one can interpret the mathematical solutions of Dirac’s equations.
However, Einstein provided another way of mathematically deriving the asymmetrical relationship between matter and antimatter when he defined the geometric properties of space-time in terms energy/mass and the constant velocity of light because it gave us the ability to define that relationship in terms of the physical properties of a spatial dimension instead of one made of time.
This is because when he used the constant velocity of light and equation E=mc^2 to define its properties he provided a method of converting a unit of space-time he associated with energy to unit of space he associated with mass. Additionally because the velocity of light is constant he also defined a one to one quantitative correspondence between the time related properties of a space-time universe with the spatial properties of one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.
In other words by defining the geometry of a space-time universe in terms of mass/energy and the constant velocity of light he provided a qualitative and quantitative means of redefining the curvature or displacement he associated with energy/mass in a space-time environment to a displacement in a fourth *spatial* dimension
Additionally he showed a curvature in a “surface” of a three dimensional space manifold with respect to time would be equivalent to that surface being curved with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension
One of the primary advantages of using this process to reformulate Einstein’s space-time concepts to its four *spatial* dimension equivalent is that it allows one to understand the asymmetry between matter and antimatter in terms of the observable properties of three-dimensional space.
As was shown above when Einstein define the geometric properties of energy and mass in terms of the constant velocity of light in a space time environment he showed the quantity of energy/mass in a environment can be derived in terms of a curvature of displacement in a “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension as well as a curvature or displacement in a space-time manifold. Additionally as was shown in the article “The reality of the fourth spatial dimension” the magnitude of a displacement in both a space-time environment and one consisting of four *spatial* dimensions defines the quantity of energy/mass it contains.
As mentioned earlier there a two problems with defining the asymmetrical properties of matter and antimatter in terms of time. The first is no one has ever observed time to move backwards as is assumed in Quantum Electrodynamics and the is that the time component in relativistic formals is squared therefore always positive and therefore cannot be used to define the asymmetrical relativistic properties associated with matter and antimatter.
Yet this would not be a problem if one viewed their properties in terms of four *spatial* dimensions instead of four dimensional space-time because we have all observed that we can move backwards and forwards or in a positive of negative direction in three dimensional space therefore allowing one to derive the asymmetry between mass and antimatter in terms equal but oppositely directed displacements in a “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
This also means, if this is a valid representation of the “reality” of matter and antimatter that one should be able to mathematically redefine Paul Dirac relativistic quantum theory of an electron in terms of the “reality” of a physical boundary between the third and fourth *spatial* dimension by using Einstein’s equations to convert his space-time model to its equivalent one in four *spatial* dimensions.
Another significant advantage to redefining Einstein’s space-time geometry to four *spatial* dimension is that would give one the ability derive a physical mechanism for why an antiparticle is created whenever a particle is based on observations of our three-dimensional environment
Classical hydrodynamics tells us if we push down on the surface of water in a closed container it will become displaced. However, it also tells us that the volume of water displaced by that downward pressure will be offset by an equal but opposite volume displaced in the upward direction.
Similarly if mass is a result of a displacement in a “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension any downward displacement in its “surface” will be offset by a equal but oppositely “upward” directed displacement.
However, as mentioned earlier the article “The reality of the fourth spatial dimension” showed one can define all forms of energy/mass in terms of a spatial displacement in a “surface” of a three dimensional space manifold.
Therefore, according to classical hydrodynamics a particle could not be created without the creation of antiparticles because as mentioned earlier it tells us that when a surface undergoes a displacement an equal but opposite or an asymmetrical one must be created on that surface.
In other words if one forces or creates a depression in the “surface” of a three dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth spatial dimension associated with the mass of a particle one will also create equal and oppositely directed elevation associated with an antiparticle.
This would define why particle and antiparticle are always created in pairs.
It should be remember Einstein’s genius allows us to chose whether to solve all problems, such those presented here or ones associated with Dark matter or Dark Energy (as was done in the articles “The Geometry of Dark Matter“ Oct. 15, 2013 and ”Dark Energy and the evolution of the universe” Oct. 1, October 2012 in either a space-time environment or one consisting of four *spatial* dimension when he defined the geometry of space-time in terms of energy/mass and the constant velocity of light. This interchangeability broadens the environment encompassed by his theories by making them applicable to both the spatial as well as the time properties of our universe similar to how Newton laws of gravity broaden domain of Kepler’s laws of planetary motion to their moons.
Copyright 2014 Jeffrey O’Callaghan