Einstein was often quoted as saying "If a new theory was not based on a physical image simple enough for a child to understand, it was probably worthless."
For example one can easily understand how a curvature in spacetime can be the causality of gradational forces in terms of the physical image of a marble on a curved surface of a rubber diaphragm. The marble follows a circular pattern around the deformity in the surface of the diaphragm. Similarly planets revolve around the sun because they follow a curved path in the deformed "surface" of spacetime.
However the same cannot be said about black body radiation.
This is because classical physics suggests that all modes have an equal chance of being produced even when the number of modes goes up proportional to the square of the frequency. However this classical concept works reasonably well at low frequency yet it begins to diverge at higher frequencies so much so that the energy content of black body approaches infinity. This discrepancy between the classical description of a black body and its reality has come to be called the Ultraviolet Catastrophe.
However Einstein realized it could be explained by assuming, as Planck had done that energy is not continuous but comes in discreet packaged define by the equation E=hv. Their observation that the energy in a black box is quantized was the basis for the development of Quantum theory.
Yet no one, up until now has been able to provide a physical image of how and why this should be so.
Up until now because in the article "The Photon: a matter wave?" Oct. 1, 2007 it was shown that one can use the observed wave properties of electromagnetic radiation and Einstein Theory of Relativity to form a physical image of how energy is disturbed in a black body.
However it is easier if one converts or transposes Einstein spacetime universe to one consisting of only four *spatial* dimensions.
(The reason will become obvious later.)
Einstein gave us the ability to do this when used the constant velocity of light to define the geometric properties of spacetime because it provided a method of converting the spacetime displacement he associated with energy in a spacetime universe to a spatial one in a universe consisting of only four *spatial* dimensions. Additionally because the velocity of light is constant he also defined a one to one correspondence between his spacetime universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.
In other words by mathematically defining the geometric properties of time in his spacetime universe in terms of the constant velocity of light he provided a qualitative and quantitative means of redefining it in terms of the geometry of four *spatial* dimensions.
The fact that one can use Einstein’s equations to qualitatively and quantitatively redefine the curvature in spacetime he associated with energy in terms of four *spatial* dimensions is one bases for assuming, as was done in the article “Defining energy?” Nov 27, 2007 that all forms of energy including electromagnetic can be derived in terms of a spatial displacement in a “surface” of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
As mentioned earlier the article "The Photon: a matter wave?" Oct. 1, 2007 shows how one can understand properties of electromagnetic energy and how it is disturbed in space and a black body in terms of a physical image based on the classical properties of wave motion if one assume that space is composed of four *spatial* dimensions instead of four dimensional spacetime.
For example a wave on the twodimensional surface of water causes a point on that surface to be become displaced or rise above or below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present. A force will be developed by this displacement, which will result in the elevated and depressed portions of the water moving towards or become "attracted" to each other and the undisturbed surface of the water.
Similarly a matter wave on the "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension would cause a point on that "surface" to become displaced or rise above and below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present.
However, classical wave mechanics, if extrapolated to four *spatial* dimensions tells us the force developed by the differential displacements caused by a matter wave moving on a "surface" of threedimensional space with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension will result in its elevated and depressed portions moving towards or become "attracted" to each other.
This would define in terms, of a physical image the causality of the attractive forces of unlike charges associated with the electromagnetic wave component of a photon in terms of a force developed by a differential displacement of a point on a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
However, it also provides a classical mechanism for understanding why similar charges repel each other because observations of water show that there is a direct relationship between the magnitudes of a displacement in its surface to the magnitude of the force resisting that displacement.

Similarly the magnitude of a displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension caused by two similar charges will be greater than that caused by a single one. Therefore, similar charges will repel each other because the magnitude of the force resisting the displacement will be greater for two similar charges than it would be for a single charge.
One can define the causality of electrical component of electromagnetic radiation in terms of the energy associated with its "peaks" and "troughs" that is directed perpendicular to its velocity vector while its magnetic component would be associated with the horizontal force developed by that perpendicular displacement. This is because classical mechanics tells us a horizontal force will be developed by that perpendicular or vertical displacement which will always be 90 degrees out of phase with it. This force is called magnetism.
This is analogous to how the vertical force pushing up of on mountain also generates a horizontal force, which pulls matter horizontally towards from the apex of that displacement.
This provides a physical image that would allow on to understand the electromagnetic wave component of black body radiation
However its quantum mechanical or particle properties can also be derived in terms of a physical image by extrapolating the laws of classical resonance to that same wave on a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
For example as the article "Why is energy/mass quantized?" Oct. 4 2007 showed one could derive a physical image of the particle or photonic properties electromagnetic energy by extrapolating the laws of classical wave to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
Briefly, it showed the four conditions required for resonance to occur in a classical environment, an object, or substance with a natural frequency, a forcing function at the same frequency as the natural frequency, the lack of a damping frequency and the ability for the substance to oscillate spatial would be meet by a matter wave in four *spatial* dimensions.
The existence of four *spatial* dimensions would give space (the substance) the ability to oscillate spatially on a "surface" between a third and fourth *spatial* dimensions thereby fulfilling one of the requirements for classical resonance to occur.
These oscillations would be caused by an event such as the decay of a subatomic particle or the shifting of an electron in an atomic orbital. This would force the "surface" of a threedimensional space to oscillate with the frequency associated with the energy of that event.
However, these oscillations in a continuous nonquantized field of energy/mass caused by such an event would cause a resonant system or "structure" to be established in it.
Classical mechanics tells us the energy of a resonant system can only take on the discreet quantized values associated with its resonant or a harmonic of its resonant frequency.
However, one can also use the above concepts of four *spatial* dimensions to develop a physical image of the particle or photonic properties
Max Planck, as was mentioned earlier associated with black body radiation.
In classical physics, a point on the twodimensional surface of paper is confined to that surface. However, that surface can oscillate up or down with respect to threedimensional space.
Similarly an object occupying a volume of threedimensional space would be confined to it however, it could, similar to the surface of the paper oscillate “up” or “down” with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
The confinement of the “upward” and “downward” oscillations of a threedimension volume with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension is what defines the spatial boundaries associated with a particle in the article “Why is energy/mass quantized?“
These resonant systems in a continuous nonquantized field of energy/mass are responsible for the discrete or incremental energies associated with the quantum component of black body radiation.

The ultraviolet catastrophe is the error at short wavelengths in the Rayleigh–Jeans law (depicted as "classical theory" in the graph) for the energy emitted by an ideal blackbody. The error, much more pronounced for short wavelengths, is the difference between the black curve (the wrong curve predicted by the Rayleigh–Jeans law) and the blue curve (the correct curve predicted by Planck’s law). 
However, these two articles also provide a physical image of why the energy distribution in a black body is what it is in terms of the concepts of classical physics.
A black body is an idealized object that absorbs all electromagnetic radiation that falls on it. Because no light is reflected or transmitted, the object appears black when it is cold. However, a black body emits a temperaturedependent spectrum of light. This thermal radiation from a black body is termed black body radiation.
At room temperature, black bodies emit mostly infrared wavelengths, but as the temperature increases past a few hundred degrees Celsius, black bodies start to emit visible wavelengths, appearing red, orange, yellow, white, and blue with increasing temperature. By the time an object is white, it is emitting substantial ultraviolet radiation.
The problem is, as was mentioned earlier the laws of classical mechanics, specifically the equipartition theorem, states that blackbodies which have achieved thermodynamic equilibrium are mathematically obligated (by classical, prequantum, laws) to radiate energy in the form of ultraviolet light, gamma rays and xrays at a certain level, depending on the frequency of emitted light.
However, as mentioned earlier observations of black body radiation indicate that there was less and less energy given off at high end of the spectrum.
Einstein pointed out this difficulty could be avoided by making use of a hypothesis put forward five years earlier by Max Planck. He had hypothesized that electromagnetic energy did not follow classical laws, but could only oscillate or be emitted only in discrete packets of energy proportional to the frequency, as given by Planck’s law. In other words, the light waves of each frequency in a black body could not have any energy but are limited to a few discrete values.
However, as mentioned earlier the article "Why is energy/mass quantized?" showed the quantity of energy of a photon at each frequency could be understood by extrapolating a physical image of a resonant system in threedimensional space to a fourth *spatial* dimension similar to how Einstein was able to from a physical image of gravity.
For example as the above theoretical model showed using only the concepts of classical physics and Einstein’s theory of Relativity a photon could only have the discrete energies or frequencies that are a fundamental or harmonic of the energy of an environment which would be determined by the temperature of the one it was occupying. Therefore, according to the above theoretical model any frequency other than that would be irregular and nonrepeating and would be absorbed into the fundamental or harmonic frequency of that environment.
In other words it explains in terms of a physical image based on our classical reality why blackbodies which have achieved thermodynamic equilibrium are mathematically obligated by (classical, prequantum, laws) to radiate energy in the form of ultraviolet light, gamma rays and xrays at a certain discrete levels, depending on the frequency of emitted light.
It should be remember Einstein’s genius allows us to choose if we want to view the physical properties of electromagnetic energy and black body radiation in either a spacetime environment or one consisting of four *spatial* dimension when he defined the geometry of spacetime in terms of the constant velocity of light. This interchangeability broadens the environment encompassed by his theories by making them applicable to both the sensory as well as the nonsensory time properties of our universe thereby giving us a new perspective on the physical relationship between particles and waves
Later Jeff
Copyright 2014 Jeffrey O’Callaghan
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01
Is it possible to define the “reality” behind the quantum world of probabilities in terms of the physical concepts of causality in the spacetime environment defined by Einstein?

Quantum theory defines the existence of particles in terms of a mathematically generated probability function created by Schrödinger’s wave equation and assumes that particles do not exist until a conscience observer looks at it. In other words it assumes the act of observation or measurement creates their reality.
However because it is based on probabilities it also assumes that the predictability associated with the laws of causality that govern our macroscopic universe do not apply to a quantum world.
In other words in quantum theory, everything is unpredictable.
Einstein hated this uncertainty, famously dismissing it when he said "God does not play dice with the universe" even though he was unable to give a reason.
However he gave us a clue as to why God must play dice when he said "If a new theory was not based on a physical image simple enough for a child to understand, it was probably worthless"
In other words we may be able to understand why a quantum environment lacks causality if we can transform the abstract or nonphysical aspects or the probabilities associated with Schrödinger’s wave equation to one that more closely resembles the physical properties of our classical world.
For example Einstein told us that our physical environment is made up of four dimensional spacetime however no one has ever observed the physicality of time or a spacetime dimension.
Therefore it is extremely difficult to form a physical image of the quantum world or any other based on the existence of time or a spacetime dimension because it is not part of our sensory environment.
Granted Einstein’s theories give us a detailed and very accurate description of how an interaction of time with the three *spatial* dimensions is responsible for the "reality" of the sensory world we inhabit and he was able to give us a clear physical image how a curvature in spacetime can be responsible for gravity.
For example the most common physical image use to explain gravity does not use time but instead extrapolates the image of an object moving on a curved two dimensional "surface" in a three dimensional environment to four dimensional spacetime. However this image only contains reference only to the sensory reality of the spatial dimensions and not a time or spacetime dimension.
Yet, the fact that most humans define our physical "reality" in terms of the spatial dimensions instead of a time or spacetime dimension suggests that one may be able to form a physical image of how and why the quantum world is what it is by viewing our universe in terms of its spatial instead of its time properties.
Einstein gave us the ability to do this when he used the velocity of light to define the geometric properties of spacetime because it allows one to convert a unit of time in his four dimensional spacetime universe to a unit of a space identical to those of our threedimensional space. Additionally because the velocity of light is constant it is possible to defined a one to one correspondence between his spacetime universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.
In other words by mathematically defining the geometric properties of spacetime in terms of the constant velocity of light he provided a qualitative and quantitative means of redefining it in terms of the geometry of four *spatial* dimensions.
The fact that one can use Einstein’s equations to qualitatively and quantitatively redefine the curvature in spacetime he associated with gravity in terms of four *spatial* dimensions allows one to form an image of its causality in terms of the physical properties of the spatial dimension instead of the nonphysical ones most of us associate with time or a spacetime dimension.
As was mentioned earlier one of the advantage to redefining Einstein spacetime concepts in terms of four *spatial* dimensions is that it not only allows one to understand gravitational energy in more direct terms but also allows on to form a physical image in terms of a classical environment for the unpredictability of the quantum world.
For example in the article “Why is energy/mass quantized?” Oct 4, 2007 it was shown one can derive the quantum mechanical properties of a particle by extrapolating the laws governing resonance in a classically threedimensional environment to a matter wave moving on a “surface” of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension. Additionally, it was showed why all energy exists in these resonant systems and therefore must be quantized.
Briefly it was showed the four conditions required for resonance to occur in a classical environment, an object, or substance with a natural frequency, a forcing function at the same frequency as its natural frequency, the lack of a damping frequency and the ability for the substance to oscillate spatial would also be found in one consisting of four.
The existence of four *spatial* dimensions would give threedimensional space (the substance with a natural frequency) the ability to oscillate spatially on a “surface” between a third and fourth *spatial* dimensions thereby fulfilling one of the requirements for classical resonance to occur.
These oscillations would be caused by an event such as the decay of a subatomic particle or the shifting of an electron in an atomic orbital. This would force the “surface” of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension to oscillate with the frequency associated with the energy of that event.
However, these oscillations in a “surface” of a threedimensional space manifold, according to classical mechanics would generate a resonant system or “structure” in space. These resonant systems are known as particles.
(In an earlier article “The geometry of quarks” Mar. 2009 it will be shown how and why they join together to form these resonant systems in terms of the geometry of four *spatial* dimensions.)
The energy in a classically resonating system is discontinuous and can only take on the discrete values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency.
However, these properties of a classically resonating system are the same as those found in a particle in that they are made up of discreet or discontinuous packets of energy/mass. This is the basis for assuming, as was done in the article “Why is energy/mass quantized?” that its quantum mechanical properties are a result of a resonant system in four *spatial* dimensions.
The reason why we do not observe energy in its extended wave form is that, as mentioned earlier all energy is propagated through space in discrete components associated with its resonant structure. Therefore, its energy appears to originate from a specific point in space associated with where an observer samples or observes that that energy.
This is analogous to how the energy of water in a sink is release by allowing it to go down the drain. If all we could observe is the water coming out of the drain we would have to assume that it was concentrated in the region of space defined by the diameter of the drain. However, in reality the water occupies a much larger region.
However, treating the quantum mechanical properties of energy/mass in terms of a resonant system generated by a matter wave also allows one to form a physical image of its unpredictability by extrapolating the laws of our classical threedimensional world to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
Classical wave mechanics tells us a wave’s energy is instantaneously constant at its peaks and valleys or the 90 and 270degree points as its slope changes from positive to negative while it changes most rapidly at the 180 and 360degree points.
Therefore, the precise position of a particle quantum mechanics associates Schrödinger’s wave equation with could be only be defined in terms of the peaks and valleys of the matter wave responsible for its resonant structure because those points are the only places where its energy or “position” is stationary with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension. Whereas it’s precise momentum would only be definable with respect to where its energy change or velocity is maximum at the 180 and 360degree points of that wave. All points in between would only be definable in terms of a combination of its momentum and position.
However, to measure the exact position of a particle one would have to divert or “drain” all of the energy at the 90 or 270degree points to the observing instrument leaving no energy associated with its momentum to be observed by another instrument. Therefore, if one was able to determine precise position of a particle he or she could not determine anything about its momentum. Similarly, to measure its precise momentum one would have to divert all of the energy at the 180 or 360 point of the wave to the observing instrument leaving none of its position information left to for an instrument which was attempting to measure it. Therefore, if one was able to determine a particles exact momentum one could not say anything about its position.
The reason we observe a particle as a point mass instead of an extended object is because, as mentioned earlier the article “Why is energy/mass quantized?” showed its energy/mass must be packaged in terms of a resonant system. Therefore, when we observe or “drain” the energy continued in its wave function, whether it be related to its position or momentum it will appear to come from a specific point in space similar how the energy of water flowing down a sink drain appears to be coming from a “point” source with respect the extended volume of water in the sink.
However, this allows one to form a physical image of the unpredictability of a quantum environment because it give us a Classical reason why we cannot precisely measure the both the momentum or position of a quantum object because the measurement of one effects the measurement of the other.
For example, if one wants to measure the position of a particle to within a certain predefined distance “m” its wave energy or momentum will have to pass through that opening. However, Classical Wave Mechanics tells us that as we reduce the error in our measurement by decreasing that predefine distance interference will cause its energy or momentum to be smeared our over a wider area. Similarly, to measure its momentum one must observe a portion the wavelength associated with its momentum. However, Classical wave mechanics tell us we must observe a larger portion of its wavelength to increase the accuracy of the measurement of its energy or momentum. But this means that the accuracy of its position will be reduced because the boundaries determining its position within the measurement field are greater.
However, because of the dynamic interaction between the position and moment component of the matter wave responsible for generating the resonant system associated with a particle defined in the article a ”Why is energy/mass quantized?” the change or uncertainty of one with respect to the other would be defined by the product of those factors.
Another way of looking at this would be to allow a particle to pass through a slit and observe where it struck a screen on the other side. One could get a more precise measurement of its position by narrowing the slit however classical wave mechanics tell us this will increase the interference of the wave properties associated with its resonant structure. However this will cause the interference pattern defining its momentum to become more spread out and therefore make it more difficult to accurately determine its value.
Therefore, Classical wave mechanics, when extrapolated to Schrödinger’s wave equation in an environment consisting a fourth *spatial* dimension tells us the more precisely the momentum of a particle is known, the less precisely its position can be known while the more precisely its position is known, the less precisely its momentum can be determined. In other words it tells us in terms of a physical image based on a classical environment the reason why God must play dice is because the physicality of a quantum environment prevents us from precisely determining the initial condition of a particle through observation.
Later Jeff
Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2014
Anthology of




The Imagineer’s 

