"Einstein once said, “What really interests me is whether God had any choice in the creation of the world. This is a fundamental question. Compared to this question, all others seem trivial. Yes, God would have had many choices if He had wanted to create a barren universe. However, in order to create a universe where life is possible, with the same set of natural laws as ours, it seems that He had only limited choices. According to recent findings, the values of physical constants should have been finetuned to make the emergence of life in the universe possible." Taeil Albert Bai Stanford University.
However one may be able to understand why they are what they by observing them in terms of the laws of causality that govern our present universe. In other words God may not have a choice in the creation of our world once those laws had been set.
For example one of the most puzzling questions facing cosmology today is why the density of matter and energy are so close to that required to create a flat universe.
The universe will be flat if and only if the attractive gravitational potential of its matter just equals the expansive energy of the big bang. This will result in the expansion slowing and only stopping after an infinite amount of time has passed.
This is important to life because the physical laws that govern our universe tell us if its expansion was much faster than its present value stars and galaxies would not have been able to form while the gravitational force of too much matter would have cause it to clump together more rapidly and thereby not giving enough time for life to evolve.
But why the universe appears to be flat even after 14 billion years of expansion is still a mystery because a flat universe is like the top of a hill. If you are a little away from it the expansion of the universe soon drives you far away from this value, just as a ball that is a short distance from a hilltop will roll down to the bottom. Therefore, when the Universe was one second old, it must have deviated from flatness by less than one part in tenthousandtrillion. This is a problem because it is hard to understand how the amount of mass and the energy associated with the expansion could have been adjusted to such precision.
However as mentioned earlier one may be able to explain the reason by observing how matter and energy interact and apply the laws of causality that govern those interactions in our present universe to its formation.
For example recent observations tell us that space is not only expanding but accelerating towards a higher spatial dimension not a time or spacetime dimension.
Therefore, to explain how the universe is expanding and accelerating towards higher spatial dimension one would have to assume the existence of another one in addition to the three spatial dimensions and one time dimension that Einstein’s theories contain to account for that observation.
This would be true if Einstein had not given us a means of qualitatively and quantitatively converting the geometric properties of his spacetime universe to one consisting of only four *spatial* dimensions.
He did this when he defined the geometric properties of a spacetime universe in terms of the balance between mass and energy defined by the equation E=mc^2 and the constant velocity of light because that provided a method of converting the displacement in spacetime he associated with energy to its equivalent displacement in four *spatial* dimensions. Additionally because the velocity of light is constant he also defined a one to one quantitative correspondence between his spacetime universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.
In other words by defining the geometric properties of a spacetime universe in terms of mass/energy and the constant velocity of light he provided a qualitative and quantitative means of redefining it in terms of the geometry of four *spatial* dimensions.
The fact that the equation E=mc^2 allows us to quantitatively derive the spatial properties of energy in a spacetime universe in terms of four *spatial* dimensions is the bases for assuming as was done in the article “Defining energy” Nov 27, 2007 that all forms of energy can be derived in terms of a displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension instead of one in a spacetime manifold.
However doing so can add significantly to our understanding how and why the forces of gravity and Dark Energy interact to cause the universe to be flat because it would allow one to derive them and the kinetic energy of its expansion in terms in terms of the common geometry of oppositely directed displacements in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
For example, one can understand why Dark Energy is causing the accelerated expansion of our universe by extrapolating that fact that if the walls of an above ground pool filled with water collapse the molecules on the elevated twodimensional surface of the water will flow or expand and accelerate outward towards the threedimensional environment surrounding it while the force associated with that expansion decreases as it expands.
Yet we know from observations of the cosmic background radiation that presently our threedimensional universe has an average energy component equal to about 3.7 degrees Kelvin.
However this means that according to concepts developed in the article “Defining energy" (mentioned earlier) the threedimensional "surface" of our universe which has an average energy component of 3.7 degree Kelvin would be elevated with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension. Therefore similar to the water molecules occupying the elevated two dimensional surface of the water, the particles occupying an "elevated’ region of threedimensional space will flow and accelerate outward in the four dimensional environment surrounding it and, as it was with the water molecules in pool their acceleration will decrease as they expand outward towards four dimensional space.
Yet deriving both gravity and the forces involved with the universes expansion in terms of a common geometry as was done above can not only explain why Dark Energy is causing it to accelerate but it can also add significantly, as mentioned earlier to our understanding of why it is flat in terms of the laws that govern our current universe.
This is because the fact that the universe is by definition is a closed system the law of conservation of energy/mass means there must a dynamic balance between the curvature created by the gravitational potential of the its energy/mass and the oppositely directed kinetic energy associated with its expansion.
This means as was shown in the article "Defining energy" the "downward" directed displacement in a "surface" of threedimension space with respect to a fourth "spatial* dimension it associates with the total gravitational potential of the universe would be offset by the "upwardly" directed one associated with its Kinetic energy.
This would allow one to understand why the universe is flat in terms of the observations of the threedimensional environment occupied by a piece of paper. They show us that if one crumples one that was original flat and views its entire surface from its three dimensional center the overall magnitude of the displacement caused by that crumpling would be zero because the height above its surface would be offset by an oppositely directed one below its surface. (This would be true even if one folded it in half because there would be an equal amount of paper above and below its center.) Therefore, if one views its overall surface only with respect to its height, its curvature would appear to be flat. In other words flatness is an intrinsic property of a flat piece of paper that has been crumpled.
Similarly, if the energy density associated with the momentum of the universe’s expansion is a result of oppositely directed displacements in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to that associated with its matter component their overall density would appear to be flat with respect to its four dimensional center because, similar to a crumpled piece of paper the "depth" of the displacement below its "surface" caused by matter would offset by the "height" of the displacement above it caused by its Kinetic energy.
However this would be true only if only if the matter and energy in our universe was "flat" or equally disturbed in the beginning.
Many proponents of the Big Bang Model assume it began from the expansion of mass and energy around a onedimensional point. However, if we are correct in assuming that density of the mass and energy components of our universe are a result of oppositely directed curvatures in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold, the universe must have been "flat" with respect to their density at the time of the Big Bang. This is because a onedimensional point would have no "vertical" component with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension and therefore the "surface" of threedimensional space originating from it would be "flat" with respect to that dimension.
However, if the universe was flat with respect to the density of its energy/mass in the beginning it would remain flat throughout its entire expansive history because as was shown above its expansion would result in a proportional reduction in the displacements above and below its threedimensional "surface" as it expanded.
Another advantage to viewing our universe in terms of four *spatial* dimensions instead of four dimensional spacetime is that it allows one to not only understand why it appears to be finetuned for flatness but also why the values of many of the other fundamental constants are what they are in terms of their evolution history.
We know from observations the equation E=mc^2 defines the equivalence between mass and energy and since mass is associated with the attractive properties of gravity it also tells us, because of that equivalence, the kinetic energy associated with the universe’s expansion also possess those attractive properties. However the law of conservation of energy/mass tells us that in a closed system the creation of kinetic energy cannot exceed the gravitational energy associated with the total energy/mass in the universe and that a reduction in one must be compensated for by an increase in the other.
This means the total gravitation potential of the universe must increase as it expands and cools approaching a maximum value at absolute "0" while at the same time the kinetic energy of its expansive components must decrease. Therefore, at some point in time, the universe MUST enter a contractive phase because the total gravitational potential must eventually exceed the kinetic energy of its expansion. This is would be true even though the gravitational potential of its kinetic energy components would be disturbed or "diluted" by a factor of c^2.
(Many physicists would disagree because recent observations suggest that a force called Dark energy is causing the expansion of the universe accelerate. Therefore they believe that its expansion will continue forever. However, as was shown in the article "Dark Energy and the evolution of the universe" Oct. 1, 2012 if one assumes the law of conservation of mass/energy is valid, as we have done here than the gravitational contractive properties of its mass equivalent will eventually have to exceed its expansive energy because as mentioned earlier kinetic energy also possess gravitational potential therefore as the universe cools there be an ever increasing force opposing its accelerated expansion. Therefore the increasing gravitational potential due to the cooling of the universe will slow the rate of the acceleration and eventually allow gravity to take over and cause the universe to enter a contractive phase. There can be no other conclusion if one accepts the validity of the laws of thermodynamics and Einstein General Theory of Relativity.)
The rate of contraction will increase until the momentum of the galaxies, planets, components of the universe equals the radiation pressure generated by the heat of that contraction.
At some point in time the total kinetic energy of the universe would be equal to the total mass equivalent of that energy or E=mc^2. From this point on the velocity of the contraction will slow due to the radiation pressure generated by the heat of its contraction and be maintained by the momentum associated with the remaining mass component of the universe.
However after a certain point in time the heat and radiation pressure generated by it collapse will become great enough to fully ionize its mass component and to cause it to reexpand.
Yet at some point in future the contraction phase will begin again because as mentioned earlier its kinetic energy can never exceed the gravitational energy associated with its mass/energy equivalent.
Since the universe is a closed system, the amplitude of the expansions and contractions will remain constant because the law of conservation of mass/energy dictates that in a closed system energy/mass cannot be created or destroyed.
This results in the universe experiencing in a neverending cycle of expansions and contractions.
Many cosmologists do not accept the cyclical scenario of expansion and contractions because they believe a collapsing universe would end in the formation of a singularity similar to the ones found in a black hole and therefore it could not reexpand.
However, according to the first law of thermodynamics the universe would have to begin expanding before it reached a singularity because that law states that energy/mass in an isolated system can neither be created nor destroyed
Therefore, because the universe is by definition an isolated system; the energy generated by its gravitational collapse cannot be radiated to another volume but must remain within it. This means the radiation pressure exerted by its collapse must eventually exceed momentum of its contraction and the universe would have to enter an expansion phase. This will result the energy/mass of the universe will oscillate around a point in space because its momentum will carry it beyond the equilibrium point were the radiation pressure was equal to its gravitational contractive component.
This would be analogous to the how momentum of a mass on a spring causes it spring to stretch beyond its equilibrium point resulting it osculating around it.
There can be no other interoperation if one assumes the validity of the first law of thermodynamics which states that the total energy of the universe is defined by the mass and the momentum of its components. Therefore, when one decreases the other must increase which means the universe must oscillate around a fixed point in fourdimensional space.
The reason a singularity can form in black hole is because it is not an isolate system therefore the thermal radiation associated with its collapse can be radiated into the surrounding space. Therefore, its collapse can continue because momentum of its mass can exceed the radiation pressure cause by its collapse in the volume surrounding a black hole.
In other words if this theatrical model is correct our universe will osculate between a very dense hot dense environment and a cold dark one.
However the mechanism outlined above provides a negative feedback loop in terms of universe’s total mass because if it is to great the speed of its collapse will be faster due to its greater gravitational potential thereby causing the next cycle to begin at a higher temperature. This will result in a faster expansion rate and therefore less time for mass to clump together to form stars and galaxies. While if its mass component is too small it would expand to a larger volume resulting a slower contraction resulting in the next cycle beginning at a lower temperature which means its expansion will be slower allowing for the creation of more mass.
This would result in the universe’s fundamental constants that have a positive effect on the creation of mass to have a very specific values. This is because if they caused to much mass to form the feedback loop describe above would result in a new value that would reduce the total amount of mass created in the next cycle. Therefore after a few cycles they would approach an optimal value that is solely dependent on the ratio on the expansive and gravitational properties of the universe.
In other words after the laws that govern the expansion and contraction of our universe were established God may not have had a choice whether or not to create it with the fundamental constants required to sustain life because as was just shown their values would depend on those laws.
It should be noted that this conclusion is based solely on observing of how matter and energy interact and the laws of causality associated with the environment they are currently occupying
Later Jeffrey
Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2014
Anthology of

The Reality


The Imagineer’s Chronicles Vol. 3 — 2012 



Before the discovery of Dark Energy cosmologists had two models of how the universe’s expansion would end.
In first scenario, there would be enough matter in the universe to slow the expansion to the point it would come to a halt and gravitational forces would cause it to begin contracting which eventually would result in a fiery death called the "Big Crunch.
In the other scenario, there would be too little matter to stop the expansion and everything would drift on forever, always slowing but never stopping. This would end in a vast, dark, and cold state: a "Big Chill," as the stars faded and died out.
However the discovery of a force causing the expansion of the universe to accelerate called Dark Energy opened up the possibility that the galaxies, solar system, stars, planets, and even molecules and atoms could be shredded by the everfaster expansion. In other words the universe that was born in a violent expansion could end with an even more violent expansion called the Big Rip.
Most scientists would agree that the best way of determining which one these scenarios defines its ultimate fate would be to understand the forces involved based on the most successful theories we have regarding the macroscopic properties of the universe.

However modern theories only address two of them. For example the laws of thermodynamics which defines the forces associated with heat early in the universe and Einstein General Theory of Relativity which defines the gravitational forces which effect its evolution are two of the most success theories we have. Unfortunately neither of them, in their present form addresses the expansive force called Dark Energy.
This is true even though Einstein foresaw the existence of Dark Energy when he added a cosmological constant to his General Theory of Relativity to make it conform to his belief in a static universe.
Granted he added it in an "adhoc" manner to force it, in keeping with physicists thinking at the time to predict a stationary universe. However when it became clear that the universe wasn’t static, but was expanding Einstein abandoned the constant, calling it the ‘"biggest blunder" of his life.
But lately scientists have revived Einstein’s cosmological constant (denoted by the Greek capital letter lambda) to explain this mysterious force which as mentioned earlier is causing the expansion of our universe to accelerate even though they have been unable to Einstein integrate it into the theoretical structure of his General Theory of Relativity.
However we may find clue as to why by observing how our universe is expanding.
For example observations of the universe’s expansion tell us that threedimensional space is expanding towards a higher spatial dimension not a time or spacetime dimension.
Therefore, to explain the how the expansive force called dark energy is accelerating the spatial expansion of the universe one would have to assume the existence of a another *spatial* or fourth *spatial* dimension in addition to the three spatial dimensions and one time dimension that Einstein’s theories contain to account for that observation.
This would be true if Einstein had not given us a means of qualitatively and quantitatively converting the geometric properties of his spacetime universe to one consisting of only four *spatial* dimensions.
He did this when he defined the geometric properties of a spacetime universe in terms of a dynamic balance between mass and energy defined by the equation E=mc^2 and the constant velocity of light because that provided a method of converting the displacement in spacetime manifold he associated with energy to its equivalent displacement in four *spatial* dimensions. Additionally because the velocity of light is constant he also defined a one to one qualitative and quantitative correspondence between his spacetime universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.
In other words by defining the geometric properties of a spacetime universe in terms of mass/energy and the constant velocity of light he provided a qualitative and quantitative means of redefining it in terms of the geometry of four *spatial* dimensions.
The fact that the equation E=mc^2 allows us to quantitatively derive the spatial properties of energy in a spacetime universe in terms of four *spatial* dimensions is the bases for assuming as was done in the article “Defining energy” Nov 27, 2007 that all forms of energy can be derived in terms of a displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension instead of one in a space time manifold.
As mentioned earlier one reason why it is difficult to integrate the accelerated special expansion of threedimensional space towards a higher space dimension into Einstein spacetime universe because it does not define one.
However it is easy to do if one redefined it, as was done above in terms of four *spatial* dimension because that higher spatial dimension would become an integral part of its theoretical structure.
Yet it also allows one to understand how and why Dark Energy is causing the accelerated spatial expansion of the universe and what its ultimate fate will be in terms the laws of thermodynamics and the concepts of Einstein’s theories.
We know from the study of thermodynamics that energy flows from areas of high density to one of low density very similar to how water flows form an elevated or "high density" point to a lower one.
For example, if the walls of an above ground pool filled with water collapse the molecules on the elevated twodimensional surface of the water will flow or expand and accelerate outward towards the threedimensional environment surrounding it while the force associated with that expansion decreases as it expands.
Additionally we know from observations of the cosmic background radiation that presently our threedimensional universe has an average energy component equal to about 3.7 degrees Kelvin.
However this means that according to concepts developed in the article “Defining energy" (mentioned earlier) the threedimensional "surface" of our universe which has an average energy component of 3.7 degree Kelvin would be elevated with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
Yet this means similar to the two dimensional surface of the water in the pool the particles that occupy that elevated region of threedimensional space and the space they occupy will accelerate and flow or expand outward in the four dimensional environment surrounding it and that the force associated with that expansion will decline as it expands.
This shows how reformulating Einstein’s theories in terms of four *spatial* dimensions allows one to use the laws of thermodynamics to explain what the force called Dark Energy is and why it is causing the accelerated expansion of the universe in terms of those theories.
Many feel that because space is everywhere, the force called Dark Energy is everywhere, and its effects increase as space expands. In contrast, gravity’s force is stronger when things are close together and weaker when they are far apart.
However the law of conservation of energy/mass tells that energy/mass cannot be created or destroyed in a closed environment. Therefore because the universe is us since, by definition is closed system the kinetic energy of the universe’s energy/mass cannot exceed its gravitational contractive properties of its mass because Einstein tells us that its kinetic energy is made up of that mass.
Therefore because some of the kinetic energy of some of its components is not directed towards its expansion because of the random motion of star and galaxies the total gravitational contractive properties of its energy/mass must exceed the kinetic energy of its expansive components. Which means at some point in time the gravitation contractive potential of its energy/mass must exceed the kinetic energy of its expansion because as just mentioned not all of its kinetic energy is directed towards its expansion. Therefore at that point, in time the universe will have to enter a contractive phase.
Some may disagree by saying that as the universe expands its energy is spread out over a larger volume so after a while it just vanishes so to speak or as some like to say that the universe experiences a heat death. However Einstein theories do not permit energy to just disappear or "die". It unequivocally tells us that if the kinetic energy content in a closed environment decreases as it cools the mass content of that environment must increase irrespective of the volume of that environment. Therefore because by definition the universe is a closed system one must assume that any reduction in its overall energy content of the universe including its heat energy must be must be compensated for by an increase in its total attractive gravitational mass content.
Some others would disagree because recent observations suggest that a force called Dark energy is causing the expansion of the universe accelerate. Therefore they believe that its expansion will continue forever. However, as was shown in the article "Dark Energy and the evolution of the universe" if one assumes the law of conservation of mass/energy is valid, as we have done here than the gravitational contractive properties of its mass equivalent will eventually exceed its expansive energy associated with dark energy and therefore the universe must at some time in the future enter a contractive phase.
We know from observations that heat is generated when we compress a gas and that the heat creates pressure that opposes further contractions.
Similarly the contraction of the universe will create heat which will oppose its further contractions.
Therefore the velocity of contraction will increase until the momentum of the galaxies, planets, components of the universe equals the radiation pressure generated by the heat of its contraction.
At this point in time the total kinetic energy of the collapsing universe would be equal and oppositely directed with respect to the radiation pressure associated with the heat of its collapse. From this point on the velocity of the contraction will slow due to the radiation pressure and be maintained by the momentum associated with the remaining mass component of the universe.
However, after a certain point in time the heat and radiation pressure generated by its contraction will become great enough to ionize the remaining mass and cause it to reexpand because the expansive forces associated with the radiation pressure will exceed the contractive forces associated with its mass.
This will result in the universe entering an expansive phase and going through another age of recombination when the comic background radiation was emitted. The reason it will experience an age of recombination as it passes through each cycle is because the heat of its collapse would be great enough to completely ionize all forms of matter.
However, at some point in time the contraction phase will begin again because as mentioned earlier its kinetic energy cannot exceed the gravitational energy associated with the total mass/energy in the universe.
Since the universe is a closed system, the amplitude of the expansions and contractions will drift and stabilize at a specific value corresponding to its resonant frequency similar to how a guitar string drift and stabilize at its resonant frequency
This results in the universe experiencing in a neverending cycle of expansions and contractions whose frequency would be defined by its resonant properties.
Many cosmologists do not accept this cyclical scenario of expansion and contractions because they believe a collapsing universe would end in the formation of a singularity similar to the ones found in a black hole and therefore, it could not reexpand.
However, according to the first law of thermodynamic the universe would have to begin expanding before it reached a singularity because that law states that energy in an isolated system can neither be created nor destroyed
Therefore because the universe is by definition an isolated system; the energy generated by its gravitational collapse cannot be radiated to another volume but must remain within it. This means the radiation pressure exerted by its collapse must eventually exceed momentum of its contraction and the universe would have to enter an expansion phase because its momentum will carry it beyond the equilibrium point were the radiation pressure is greater that the momentum of its mass.
This would be analogous to the how momentum of a mass on a spring causes it to stretch beyond its equilibrium point resulting it osculating around it.
There can be no other interpretation if one assumes the validity of the first law of thermodynamics which states that the total energy is a closed system is defined its mass and the momentum of its components. Therefore, when one decreases the other must increase and therefore it must oscillate around a point in space and time.
The reason a singularity can form in black hole is because it is not an isolate system therefore the thermal radiation associated with its collapse can be radiated into the surrounding space. Therefore, its collapse can continue because momentum of its mass can exceed the radiation pressure cause by its collapse in the volume surrounding a black hole.
In other words if this theoretical model is correct our universe has never ending future which exists between an icy death caused by Dark Energy and a fiery rebirth created by gravity.
Later Jeff
Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2014