or should we let “reality” define our imagination.
Unfortunately many physicists attempt to define reality based solely on what they measure and do not attempt to conceptually integrate those measurements into the realty we see around us.
One example can be found in Brian Clegg book Before the Big Bang: The Prehistory of Our Universe (p. 137) where he describes how Neils Bohr reacted when Heisenberg proposed his uncertainty principal.
“When Heisenberg first told his boss, Neils Bohr, about the uncertainty principle, he put it across in the form of an imaginary microscope. He described a particle as an electron passing through a make-believe ultra powerful microscope. We use light to examine the object, so a beam of photons (quantum particles just as the electron is) is constantly crashing into the electron. The result is that the electron’s path is changed. You can’t look at a quantum particle without changing things. Heisenberg is said to have been reduced to tears when Bohr ripped his idea to pieces. Heisenberg had assumed that until the microscope scanned the electron, the electron had an exact position and momentum. He thought it was the process of observing it that messed things up. But actually, Bohr pointed out, the uncertainty was more fundamental than that. There was no need to observe the electron for uncertainty to apply: it was inherent to the nature of a quantum particle.”
In other words Neils Bohr said that because we will never be able to observe an electron without changing it or its environment one must simply accept the fact that we will never be able to understand why it behaves the way it does in terms of the “reality” we see around us.
However the science of physics is defined as “the asking fundamental questions regarding how and why matter and energy interact while demanding the answers be validated by observations.
Yet this definition appears to conflict with Neils Bohr assertion that the uncertainty principal is inherent to the nature of a quantum particle because that immunizes it from such questions.
Additionally he said since it is true that uncertainty principal is inherent to the nature of the unseen world of a quantum particle “Everything we call real is made of things that cannot be regarded as real”.
Yet if one uses his philosophy that “reality” does not exist then the observations used to define that principal also cannot be real or exist because one cannot observe something that does not exist. In other words the very arguments Neils Bohr uses to support his concept of the uncertainty principal leads to it invalidation.
However history has shown us that one of the advantages to defining the universe that we cannot and will never be able to see in terms of the “reality” of our observable environment is that it limits the ability of our imagination to create nonexistent or fantasy worlds to support them.
For example Einstein mathematically derived the force of gravity in terms of a curvature in a four dimensional space-time universe. However even though he knew that he would never be able to physically observe how a time dimension interacts with the three spatial dimensions he attempted and succeeded in explaining how a curvature in a space-time environment can result in the force gravity by watching how a marble moved on a curved surface in our observable three dimensional universe.
In other words Einstein not only mathematically quantified the measurements of the force of gravity but he also provided a qualitative explanation of how it could act at distance by anchoring it to the observable properties of an object moving on a curved surface in three-dimensional environment.
This methodology is in sharp contrast to how Newton defined gravity in that he simply accepted the fact that he was able to accurately quantify it using the concept of action at a distance even though he was aware that it disagreed, as the following excerpt from a letter he wrote to Bentley with the “reality” he saw around him.
“It is inconceivable that inanimate brute matter should, without the mediation of something else which is not material, operate upon and affect other matter without mutual contact…That gravity should be innate, inherent, and essential to matter, so that one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum, without the mediation of anything else, by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity that I believe no man who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking can ever fall into it.
However Einstein’s unwillingness to accept action at a distance gave him the ability more accurately quantify gravity while providing an understanding of how it could act at a distance by anchoring it to the “reality” of our three-dimensional environment. Additional it showed that Newton’s concept of absolute space and time only existed in the fantasy world of his imagination because according to Einstein gravity is caused by their variability.
This shows the power of attempting to understand the unobservable in terms of the observable by anchoring it to the “reality” of what we see around us and why we should be skeptical about accepting the validity of the uncertain principal based on Neils Bohr assertion that it is inherent to the nature of a quantum particle
However what is even more damaging to his ideology of blindly accepting a mathematical interpretation of the uncertainty principle, is that it is possible (much as Einstein did) to extrapolate the observable properties of our three dimensional environment to a quantum one as was done in the article “A classical interpretation of Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principal” Dec. 1 2012 to explain and predict how and why it behaves the way it does.
However before we begin we must first reformulate Einstein space-time concept to their spatial equivalent.
(The reason will become obvious latter)
Einstein gave use the ability to do this when he used the constant velocity of light in the equation E=mc^2 to define the geometry properties of space-time because it provided a method of converting a unit of space-time he associated with energy to a unit of space he associated with mass. Additionally because the velocity of light is constant he also defined a one to one quantitative and qualitative correspondence between his space-time universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.
In other words by defining the geometric properties of a space-time universe in terms of mass/energy and the constant velocity of light provided a qualitative and quantitative means of redefining his space-time universe as was done in the article “The “Relativity” of four spatial dimensions” in terms of geometry of only four *spatial* dimensions.
On advantage to doing this is that it gives one a different perspective on the “reality” of the quantum environment and the uncertainty principal in terms of the observable “reality” of our three dimensional universe.
For example the article “Why is energy/mass quantized?” Oct. 4, 2007 demonstrated it is possible to understand the quantum mechanical properties of energy/mass by extrapolating the laws of classical resonance in a three-dimensional environment to a matter wave on a “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
Briefly it showed the four conditions required for resonance to occur in a classical environment, an object or substance with a natural frequency, a forcing function at the same frequency as the natural frequency, the lack of a damping frequency and the ability for the substance to oscillate spatial would be meet by a matter wave in four *spatial* dimensions.
The existence of four *spatial* dimensions would give a matter wave the ability to oscillate spatially on a “surface” between a third and fourth *spatial* dimensions thereby fulfilling one of the requirements for classical resonance to occur.
These oscillations would be caused by an event such as the decay of a subatomic particle or the shifting of an electron in an atomic orbital. This would force the “surface” of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension to oscillate with the frequency associated with the energy of that event.
The oscillations caused by such an event would serve as forcing function allowing a resonant system or “structure” to be established in four *spatial* dimensions.
Classical mechanics tells us the energy of a resonant system can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its resonant or a harmonic of its resonant frequency
Therefore the discrete or quantized energy of resonant systems in a continuous field of four spatial dimensions could explain the discrete quantized quantum mechanical properties of particles.
However, it did not explain how the boundaries of a particle’s resonant structure are defined.
In classical physics, a point on the two-dimensional surface of paper is confined to that surface. However, that surface can oscillate up or down with respect to three-dimensional space.
Similarly an object occupying a volume of three-dimensional space would be confined to it however, it could, similar to the surface of the paper oscillate “up” or “down” with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
The confinement of the “upward” and “downward” oscillations of a three-dimension volume with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension is what defines the geometric boundaries of the “box” containing the resonant system the article “Why is energy/mass quantized?” associated with a particle and why quantum systems behave the way they do.
For example in quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle asserts that there a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, such as position x and momentum p, can be simultaneously known.
However, this means that one can define the physicality of the uncertainty principal in terms the geometry of the four *spatial* dimensions because Quantum Mechanics mathematically defines the position and momentum of a particle in terms of non dimensional point. This means there would be an uncertainty in determining its position because that point could be found anywhere within the volume of the “box” mentioned above.
Similarly there would be an uncertainty in measuring its momentum, again because quantum mechanics defines it in terms of a non dimensional point. Therefore before one could determine a particle’s momentum one would have to know the exact position of the “end” points one uses to measure its velocity. However, as mentioned above that non dimension point representing a particle could be found anywhere in the box containing the resonant structure that defined a particle in the article “Why is energy/mass quantized?“ Therefore one could not determine its exact velocity and momentum because there will always be an uncertainty as to where the non dimensional point representing a particle is in the box when the measurement was taken
The reason why one cannot simultaneously measure both with complete accuracy is because the act of measure its momentum or position requires one to access different segments the “box” containing particle.
For example if one wants to make the most accurate measurement possible of its momentum internal to the box one would have to measure the time it took for it to transverse a given segment of it. However this means that one could not determine its position because it would be changing throughout the entire time that it took it to transverse that portion of the box.
However if one wanted to make the most accurate measurement possible of its position internal to the box it would have to be stationary with respect to the box’s geometry meaning that one could not determine its monument because it would not be moving. Since these two measurements required one to access different segments of a particles geometry they are mutually exclusive.
Therefore one cannot simultaneously measure a particle position x and momentum p with complete accuracy.
This defines in terms of the reality we see around us why there is a limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, such as position x and momentum p, can be simultaneously known.
However it also tells us we should always attempt to conceptually integrate our theoretical models into the “reality” of what we “see” around us because it allows one to physically connect the abstract properties of a theoretical environment created by our imagination to the reality of the worlds they are describing thereby limiting its ability to create fantasy worlds such as the one Neils Bohr believed in to explain their theoretical models.
Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2014
One of the most fundamental questions in physics and cosmology is why the physical constants are what they are.
For example the fine structure constant is one of the about 22 empirical parameters in the Standard Model of particle physics, whose value is not determined within it.
In other words their values are not determined by theory but by experimentation.
An even more puzzling question is why a certain number of them lie within a very narrow range, so that if any were only slightly different, the Universe would be unable to develop matter, astronomical structures, elemental diversity, or life as we presently understand it.
However there are several theoretical models that attempt to explain why we live in a universe that is so fine tuned for life.
For example the Multiverse class of theories assumes the value of the fundamental constants vary randomly though out many different universes and that we happen to live in one that have the values that will support life.
In other words they all assume the existence of many universes, each with randomly chosen physical constants, some of which are hospitable to intelligent life and because we are intelligent beings, we are by definition in a hospitable one.
However all of then suffer from the same problem in that are not verifiable or falsifiable because by definition universes are closed systems and cannot interact with each other. Therefore because they cannot interact with ours there is no way to verify or falsify their existence.
This is why Critics of the Multiverse-related explanations argue that they are unscientific because there is no way to experimentally verify or falsify their existence.
Yet the reason why we live in a universe in which the values of fundamental constants are fine tuned to allow life to developed may not be due to a random property of their origins but may be because they are preordained to have those values by a dynamic resonant property of energy/mass defined by Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity and his equation E=mc^2.
In other words the fundamental constants are what they are because they correspond to the most stable configuration of energy/mass possible.
For example a guitar string has a frequency at which it will naturally resonant at due, in part to the tension it is experiencing, and will, if allowed to, drift towards and stabilize at that optimal value.
Similarly the values of the fundamental constants associated with the resonant structure of energy/mass defined by Einstein would have a tendency to drift towards and stabilize at their optimal value.
However if it is true that the fundament constants are due to a dynamic resonant property of energy/mass one should be able to determine their values, including that of fine structure and cosmological constant by measuring the components of the resonant system it creates.
The dynamic relationship between mass and energy defined by the equation E=mc^2 tell us that they are oppositely directed in the sense that if one increases the other must decrease. However this also tells that whenever they interact a resonant structure would be formed whose fundamental frequency would be determined in part by the "tension" created their oppositely directed components similar to how the frequency of a guitar string also depends on the tension it is under.
This suggest that the magnitude of the fine structure constant may be the result of a resonant structure formed by the "tension" created between the mass and the oppositely directed quantized electrical energy of its components defined by the equation E=mc^2. Additionally because of the dynamic properties of energy/mass discussed above its value will adjust and stabilize around one that defines the optimal resonant structure for those components.
In other words the value of fine structure constant may not be a random feature of our universe but is determine by a dynamic relationship between energy/mass and its quantized components.
However if it is true that the values of all of the fundamental constants are due to resonant property of energy/mass defined by Einstein then, as with the fine structure constant one should also be able to determine the value of the cosmological constant in terms of those resonant properties.
The dynamic relationship between mass and energy describe above tells us that the universe’s expansion would form a resonant structure whose fundamental frequency would be determined by the relative strengths of the "tension" associated with the kinetic energy of its expansion and the gravitational contractive forces associated with its mass. Again this would be similar to how the fundamental frequency at which a guitar string resonates depends upon the tension of its strings.
This means the value of the cosmology constant associated with the universe’s expansion may be related to the dynamic resonant properties of energy and mass and not to some random function as is assumed by most of Multiverse theories.
As mentioned earlier Einstein General Theory of Relativity tells us there is a dynamic balance between the universe’s gravitational potential energy and the kinetic energy associated with its expansion. However, not all of the energy associated with that expansion is directed towards it because of the random motion of its energy/mass components. For example, observations indicate that some stars and galaxies are moving towards not away from us. Therefore, not all of the kinetic energy present at the time of its origin is directed towards its expansion.
Additionally the equation E=mc^2 which defines the equivalence between mass and energy tells us the kinetic energy of the universe’s expansion also posses gravitational potential.
However the law of conservation of energy/mass tells that energy/mass cannot be created or destroyed in a closed environment. This also tells us since, by definition the universe is closed system the kinetic energy of the universe’s energy/mass cannot exceed its gravitational contractive properties of its mass because Einstein tells us that its kinetic energy is made up of that mass.
Therefore because some of the kinetic energy of its components is not directed towards its expansion the total gravitational contractive properties of its energy/mass must exceed the kinetic energy of its expansive components. Which means at some point in time the gravitation contractive potential of its energy/mass must exceed the kinetic energy of its expansion because as just mentioned not all of its kinetic energy is directed towards its expansion. Therefore at that point, in time the universe will have to enter a contractive phase.
(Many physicists would disagree because recent observations suggest that a force called Dark energy is causing the expansion of the universe accelerate. Therefore they believe that its expansion will continue forever. However, as was shown in the article "Dark Energy and the evolution of the universe" if one assumes the law of conservation of mass/energy is valid, as we have done here than the gravitational contractive properties of its mass equivalent will eventually exceed its expansive energy associated with dark energy and therefore the universe must at some time in the future enter a contractive phase.)
We know from observations that heat is generated when we compress a gas and that this heat creates pressure that opposes further contractions.
Similarly the contraction of the universe will create heat which will oppose its further contractions.
Therefore the velocity of contraction will increase until the momentum of the galaxies, planets, components of the universe equals the radiation pressure generated by the heat of its contraction.
At this point in time the total kinetic energy of the collapsing universe would be equal and oppositely directed with respect to the radiation pressure associated with the heat of its collapse. From this point on the velocity of the contraction will slow due to the radiation pressure and be maintained by the momentum associated with the remaining mass component of the universe.
However, after a certain point in time the heat and radiation pressure generated by its contraction will become great enough to ionize the remaining mass and cause it to reexpand because the expansive forces associated with the radiation pressure will exceed the contractive forces associated with its mass.
This will result in the universe entering an expansive phase and going through another age of recombination when the comic background radiation was emitted. The reason it will experience an age of recombination as it passes through each cycle is because the heat of its collapse would be great enough to completely ionize all forms of matter.
However, at some point in time the contraction phase will begin again because as mentioned earlier its kinetic energy cannot exceed the gravitational energy associated with the total mass/energy in the universe.
Since the universe is a closed system, the amplitude of the expansions and contractions will drift and stabilize at a specific value corresponding to its resonant frequency similar to how a guitar string drift and stabilize at it’s resonant frequency
This results in the universe experiencing in a never-ending cycle of expansions and contractions whose frequency would be defined by its resonant properties.
Many cosmologists do not accept this cyclical scenario of expansion and contractions because they believe a collapsing universe would end in the formation of a singularity similar to the ones found in a black hole and therefore, it could not re-expand.
However, according to the first law of thermodynamic the universe would have to begin expanding before it reached a singularity because that law states that energy in an isolated system can neither be created nor destroyed
Therefore because the universe is by definition an isolated system; the energy generated by its gravitational collapse cannot be radiated to another volume but must remain within it. This means the radiation pressure exerted by its collapse must eventually exceed momentum of its contraction and the universe would have to enter an expansion phase because its momentum will carry it beyond the equilibrium point were the radiation pressure is greater that the momentum of its mass.
This would be analogous to the how momentum of a mass on a spring causes it to stretch beyond its equilibrium point resulting it osculating around it.
There can be no other interpretation if one assumes the validity of the first law of thermodynamics which states that the total energy is a closed system is defined its mass and the momentum of its components. Therefore, when one decreases the other must increase and therefore it must oscillate around a point in space and time.
The reason a singularity can form in black hole is because it is not an isolate system therefore the thermal radiation associated with its collapse can be radiated into the surrounding space. Therefore, its collapse can continue because momentum of its mass can exceed the radiation pressure cause by its collapse in the volume surrounding a black hole.
If this theoretical model is valid the heat generated by the collapse of the universe must raise the temperature to a point where it energy/mass would become ionized into their component parts thereby making the universe opaque to radiation. It would remain that way until it entered the expansion phase and cooled enough to allow them become deionized. This Age of Recombination, as cosmologists like to call it is the causality of the Cosmic Background Radiation.
As mentioned earlier the frequency of the expansions and contractions of all resonant systems is defined by their resonant properties.
Similarly the resonant structure created by the contractive properties of universe’s gravitational potential and the kinetic energy of its expansion will also have a natural frequency which would be determine by resonant properties. Like all resonant structures any frequencies that do not correspond to that value will be attenuated.
Therefore the value of the cosmologic constant which would define the rate or frequency at which the universe is expanding or contracting would be determined by the resonant properties of energy/mass define by Einstein.
In other words the value of its cosmological constant may not be randomly chosen but would be defined by the physical relationship between mass and kinetic energy defined by Einstein.
This means one could experimentally quantify and this scenario by using Einstein equations to determine the value of the cosmology constant based on that relationship and see if it agrees with its observed value.
In other words it is not necessary to assume the existence of multiple universes to understand why fundamental physical constants lie within a very narrow range that allows life to develop because their values may not be random chosen but are preordained to have them by a physical property of energy and mass defines by Einstein.
As mentioned earlier many Critics of the Multiverse-related explanations argue that there is no evidence or any way of verifying or falsifying the existence of other universes.
However we can observe and verify the existence of the resonant properties of energy and mass and if want we have said above is true that values all of the fundamental constants in physics are related to those resonant properties them it would be falsified if it was found that the value of even one of them could not be derived using that concept.
Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2014