Recently there have been many observations that are extremely difficult to integrate into the currently accepted theoretical models.

Particularly the force called Dark Energy has eluded any attempt make it a part of the "The Standard Model of Particle Physics" one of the most successful theories ever created. 

However what makes this even more troubling is that the Standard model is based on two other very successful theories, that of Einstein General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Field Theory.

Therefore if, despite continued efforts to developed a theoretical understanding of Dark Energy in terms of these theories we still cannot succeed, should we assume that, due to how interconnected these theories are we must discard them and look in a new direction.

Not necessarily because we may be able to understand its causality in terms of our current theories if instead of trying to make Dark Energy conform to them we allow its observed properties to guide us to a more complete understanding their validly.

Most scientists would agree that the best way of determining how one should interpret a theoretical model would be to list all observations regarding the forces in its domain and try to define them in terms of the rules it lays out.

Dr. Michio Kaku
The Physics of the future

For example observations of the expansive force called Dark Energy tell us that three-dimensional space is expanding towards a higher spatial dimension not a time or space-time dimension.  

Therefore, to explain the observed spatial expansion of the universe one would have to assume the existence of a another *spatial* or fourth *spatial* dimension in addition to the three-spatial dimensions and one time dimension that Einstein’s theories contain to account for that observation.

This would be true if Einstein had not given us a means of qualitatively and quantitatively converting the geometric properties of his space-time universe to one consisting of only four *spatial* dimensions.

He did this when he used the constant velocity of light and the equation E=mc^2 to define the dynamic balance between mass and energy responsible for geometric properties of space-time because it provided a method of converting the space-time displacement he associated with energy in a space-time universe to a spatial one in a universe consisting of only four *spatial* dimensions.  Additionally because the velocity of light is constant he also defined a one to one quantitative correspondence between his space-time universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.

In other words by defining the geometric properties of a space-time universe in terms of mass/energy and the constant velocity of light he provided a qualitative and quantitative means of redefining it in terms of the geometry of four *spatial* dimensions.

The fact that the equation E=mc^2 allows us to both qualitatively and quantitatively derive the spatial properties of energy in a space-time universe in terms of four *spatial* dimensions is the bases for assuming as was done in the article “Defining energy” Nov 27, 2007 that all forms of energy, including that associated with the Higgs field can be derived in terms of a spatial displacement in a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

As mentioned earlier it is difficult to integrate the causality of how three-dimensional space can be expanding towards a higher *spatial" dimension into Einstein space-time universe because it does not define a higher spatial dimension. 

However it is easy if one redefines Einstein’s space-time universe, as was done above in terms of four *spatial* dimensions because a higher or fourth *spatial* dimension would be an integral part of its theoretical structure.

Yet it also allows one use Einstein theories and the laws of thermodynamics to understand how and why the expansive force called Dark Energy is causing the spatial expansion of our universe because it gives one the ability to qualitatively and quantitatively define energy in terms of a spatial displacement in a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimensions instead of one in a space-time environment.

We know from the study of thermodynamics that energy flows from areas of high to one of low density very similar to how water flows form an elevated or "high density" point to a lower one.

For example, if the walls of an above ground pool filled with water collapse the water molecules on the elevated two-dimensional surface of the water will flow or expand and accelerate outward towards the three-dimensional environment surrounding it while the force associated with that expansion decreases as it expands.

Yet we know from observations of the cosmic background radiation that presently our three-dimensional universe has an average energy component equal to about 3.7 degrees Kelvin. 

However according to concepts developed in the article “Defining energy" (mentioned earlier) the three-dimensional "surface" of our universe which has an average energy component of 3.7 degree Kelvin would be elevated with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

Yet this means similar to the water molecules occupying the elevated two dimensional surface of the water in the pool, the particles occupying a region of three-dimensional space that is elevated because of its 3.7 degree temperature will flow and accelerate outward in the four dimensional environment surrounding it.

This shows how reformulating Einstein’s theories in terms of four *spatial* dimensions allows one to use the laws of thermodynamics to explain what the force called Dark Energy is and why it is causing the accelerated expansion of the universe in terms of the Einstein’s theories.

Many feel that because space is everywhere, the force called Dark Energy is everywhere so therefore its effects will increase as space expands.  In contrast, gravity’s force is stronger when things are close together and weaker when they are far apart. Therefore they feel the rate at which the universe expands will increase as time go by resulting in galaxies, stars, the solar system, planets, and even molecules and atoms could be shredded by the ever-faster expansion. In other words the universe that was born in a violent expansion could end with an even more violent expansion called the Big Rip.

However if the above theoretical model is correct than the magnitude of Dark Energy relative to gravitational energy will not continue to increase as the universe expands but will decrease because, similar to the water in a collapsed pool the accelerative forces associated with it will decline as it expands and yet because the quantity of energy/mass of the universe remains constant through its history its gravitational potential will also.

Therefore in the future the gravitational contractive forces associated with it will exceed the expansive forces associated with Dark Energy because, as mentioned earlier according to this theoretical model its accelerative forces should decrease as the universe expands. This would be true even though its components may be separated by extremely large distances because, as just mentioned if the above theoretical scenario is correct the force associated with dark energy will decease relative to gravity as time goes by.

Recent observations also suggest that early in the universe evolution the gravitational forces exceeded the expansive forces of Dark Energy.

The reason is according the above theoretical model, just after the big bang when the concentration of energy and mass was high, the gravitational forces of the universe’s energy/mass would predominate over Dark Energy because the distance between both its energy and mass components was relatively small.

However as the universe expands its gravitational attractive forces will decrease more rapidly than the expansive force associated with Dark Energy because they are related to the square of the distance between them while those of the expansive forces of Dark Energy are more closely related to a linear function of the total energy of content of the universe.

Therefore after a given period of time the expansive forces associated with Dark Energy will become predominate and the expansion of the universe will accelerate.

However as the universe expands and cools that force will decrease because as mentioned earlier similar to the two-dimensional surface of the water in a collapsed pool, the forces associated with that expansion will decrease as it expands.

This means that eventually gravitational forces will win because, as mentioned earlier the laws of thermodynamics tells us the total accelerative forces associated with Dark Energy will decease and therefore will eventually approach zero, while the total mass content and the gravitational attractive forces associated with it will remain constant as the universe expands even though they may be separated by a greater distant.

Therefore. gravity will eventually win the battle with dark Energy because as was just mentioned the forces associated with it approach zero as the expansion progress while those of gravity remain constant.

There can be no other conclusion if one accepts the validity of Einstein’s theories and the laws of thermodynamics because the theoretical arguments presented are a base solely on their validity.

This shows how one can fully integrate the observed properties of Dark Energy into Einstein General Theory of Relativity while at the same time demonstrating the advantages of allowing observations guide our understanding of our theoretical model instead of forcing them to be subservient to our preconceive theoretical ideas.

However this may also allow gravity to be integrated into the Standard Model if one can reformulate its space-time equations to their equivalent in four *spatial* dimensions as was shown above to be possible.

It should be remember that Einstein’s genius allows us to choose whether to view Dark Energy and the mathematical equations in the Standard Model in either a space-time environment or one consisting of four *spatial* dimension when he defined the geometry of space-time in terms of energy/mass and the constant velocity of light.

Later Jeff

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2014


 

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The following excerpt from NASA’s in its Astrophysics web site Dark Energy describes what we do and don’t know about Dark Energy.

"More is unknown about it than is known. We know how much dark energy there is because we know how it affects the Universe’s expansion. Other than that, it is a complete mystery. But it is an important mystery. It turns out that roughly 68% of the Universe is dark energy. Dark matter makes up about 27%. The rest – everything on Earth, everything ever observed with all of our instruments, all normal matter – adds up to less than 5% of the Universe. Come to think of it, maybe it shouldn’t be called "normal" matter at all, since it is such a small fraction of the Universe.

Supernovae, Dark Energy, and the Accelerating Universe

One explanation for dark energy is that it is a property of space.  Albert Einstein was the first person to realize that empty space is not nothing. Space has amazing properties, many of which are just beginning to be understood. The first property that Einstein discovered is that it is possible for more space to come into existence. Then one version of Einstein’s gravity theory, the version that contains a cosmological constant, makes a second prediction: "empty space" can possess its own energy. Because this energy is a property of space itself, it would not be diluted as space expands. As more space comes into existence, more of this energy-of-space would appear. As a result, this form of energy would cause the Universe to expand faster and faster. Unfortunately, no one understands why the cosmological constant should even be there, much less why it would have exactly the right value to cause the observed acceleration of the Universe." 

Most scientists would agree the best case scenario would be to understand the causality of dark energy and how it interacts with its environment in terms of observations and our currently accepted theoretical models.

However, presently there are only two scientific disciplines that address those interactions.  The first or the laws of thermodynamics defines the forces associated with heat early in the universe’s evolution and the second or Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity defines how gravity influences that evolution.

Unfortunately neither of them, in their present form address the expansive force of Dark Energy and how or why it interacts with its environment to cause it to accelerate.

Yet one of the most obvious difficulties in integrating it into Einstein’s space-time universe is that observations tell us that three-dimensional space is expanding towards a higher spatial dimension not a time or space-time dimension.  

Therefore, in order to explain the observed spatial expansion of the universe one would have to assume the existence of a another *spatial* or fourth *spatial* dimension in addition to the three spatial dimensions and one time dimension that Einstein’s theories contain to account for that observation.

This would be true if Einstein had not given us a means of qualitatively and quantitatively converting the geometric properties of his space-time universe to one consisting of only four *spatial* dimensions.

He did this when he defined the geometric properties of a space-time universe and the dynamic balance between mass and energy in terms of the equation E=mc^2 and the constant velocity of light because it allows one to redefine a unit of time he associated with energy in his space-time universe to unit of space we believe he would have associated with mass in a universe consisting of only four *spatial* dimensions. 

In other words by defining the geometric properties of a space-time universe in terms of the equation E=mc^2 and the constant velocity of light he provided a qualitative and quantitative means of redefining his space-time universe in terms of the geometry of four *spatial* dimensions.

The fact that the equation E=mc^2 allows us to quantitatively derive the physical properties of energy in a space-time universe in terms of its spatial properties is the bases for assuming, as was done in the article “Defining energy” Nov 27, 2007 that all forms of energy can be derived in terms of a spatial displacement in a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.

As mentioned earlier it is difficult to integrate the causality of three-dimensional space expanding towards a higher *spatial" dimension into Einstein space-time universe because it does not define a higher spatial dimension. 

However it is easy if one reformulates it, as was shown above to be possible in terms higher fourth *spatial* dimension.

Yet this also allows one to understand how and why the force called Dark Energy is causing an accelerated spatial expansion of our universe in terms of the laws of thermodynamics because it gives one the ability, as mentioned earlier to use his equations to qualitatively and quantitatively define energy in terms of a spatial displacement in a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimensions.

We know from the study of thermodynamics that energy flows from areas of high density to one of low density very similar to how water flows form an elevated or "high density" point to a lower one.

For example, if the walls of an above ground pool filled with water collapse the elevated two-dimensional surface of the water will flow or expand and accelerate outward towards the three-dimensional environment surrounding it while the force associated with that expansion decreases as it expands.

Yet we know from observations of the cosmic background radiation that presently our three-dimensional universe has an average energy component equal to about 3.7 degrees Kelvin. 

However this means according to concepts developed in the article “Defining energy" that the three-dimensional "surface" occupied by the particles in our universe which has an average energy component of 3.7 degree Kelvin would be elevated with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.  

Yet this means similar to the water molecules occupying the elevated two dimensional surface of the water in the pool, the particles occupying a region of three-dimensional space that is elevated because of its 3.7 degree temperature will flow and accelerate outward in the four dimensional environment surrounding it.

This shows how reformulating Einstein’s theories in terms of four *spatial* dimensions allows one to use the laws of thermodynamics to explain what the force called Dark Energy is and why it is causing the accelerated expansion of the universe in terms of Einstein’s theories.

Many feel that because space is everywhere, the force called Dark Energy is everywhere so therefore its effects will increase as space expands.  In contrast, gravity’s force is stronger when things are close together and weaker when they are far apart.  Therefore they feel the rate at which the universe expands will increase as time go by resulting in galaxies, stars, the solar system, planets, and even molecules and atoms could be shredded by the ever-faster expansion.  In other words the universe that was born in a violent expansion could end with an even more violent expansion called the Big Rip.

However if the above theoretical model is correct than the magnitude of Dark Energy relative to gravitational energy will not continue to increase as the universe expands but will decrease because, similar to the water in a collapsed pool the accelerative forces associated with it will decline as it expands. 

Yet, because the energy/mass of the universe remains constant through its history its gravitational potential will also.  Therefore in the future the gravitational contractive forces associated with it will exceed the expansive forces associated with Dark Energy because, as mentioned earlier according to this theoretical model its accelerative forces should decrease as the universe expands .  This would be true even though its components may be separated by extremely large distances because, as just mentioned if the above theoretical scenario is correct the force associated with dark energy will decease relative to gravity as time goes by.

However observations also suggest that early in the universe evolution the gravitational forces exceeded the expansive forces of Dark Energy.

The reason is that according the above theoretical model, just after the big bang when the concentration of energy and mass was high, the gravitational forces of the universe’s energy/mass would predominate over Dark Energy because the distance between both its energy and mass components was relatively small.

However as the universe expands its gravitational attractive forces will decrease more rapidly than the expansive force associated with Dark Energy because they are related to the square of the distance between them while those of the expansive forces of Dark Energy are more closely related to a linear function of the total energy of content of the universe. 

Therefore after a given period of time the expansive forces associated with Dark Energy will become predominate and the expansion of the universe will accelerate.

However as the universe expands and cools that force will decrease because as mentioned earlier similar to the two-dimensional surface of the water in a collapsed pool, the forces associated with that expansion will decrease as it expands.

This means that eventually gravitational forces will win because, as mentioned earlier the laws of thermodynamics tells us the total accelerative forces associated with Dark Energy will decease and therefore will eventually approach zero, while the total mass content and the gravitational attractive forces associated with it will remain constant as the universe expands even though they may be separated by a greater distant.

Therefore. gravity will eventually win the battle with dark Energy because as was just mentioned the forces associated with it approach zero as the expansion progress while those of gravity remain constant.

There can be no other conclusion if one accepts the validity of Einstein’s theories and the laws of thermodynamics because the theoretical arguments presented are a base solely on their validity.

It should be remember that Einstein’s genius allows us to choose whether to view dark energy in either a space-time environment or one consisting of four *spatial* dimension when he defined the geometry of space-time in terms of energy/mass and the constant velocity of light.

Later Jeff

Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2014


 

The Imagineer’s
Chronicles
Vol. 4 — 2013


 
Paperback
$13.29
E-book
$7.99

Anthology of
The Imagineer’s Chronicles
Vol. 1 thru 4

   
Ebook
$10.50

The Imagineer’s
Chronicles
Vol. 3 — 2012

 
Paperback
$10.96
Ebook
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The Imagineer’s
Chronicles
Vol. 2 — 2011
 
Paperback
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The Reality
of the Fourth
Spatial
Dimension
 
Paperback
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$6.24

The Imagineer’s
Chronicles
2007 thru 2010
 
Paperback
$14.97
Ebook
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