Here is an amazing fact: The matter we know that makes up all stars and galaxies only accounts for 5% of the content of the universe. The rest is called dark matter. It does not interact with the electromagnetic force and therefore does not absorb, reflect or emit light, making it extremely hard to spot. In fact, researchers are only able to infer its existence only from the gravitational effect it has on visible matter, which outweighs the visible matter roughly six to one, making up about 27% of the universe
The search for this missing mass has focus on three different types of particles or objects that would be invisible or would not interact with electromagnetic energy while at the same-time influence the gravity forces of the visible mass component our universe.
The first or Axions are very light particles with a specific type of self-interaction that makes them a suitable CDM candidate. Axions have the theoretical advantage that their existence solves the Strong CP problem in QCD, but have not yet been detected.
The second or MACHOs or Massive Compact Halo Objects are large, condensed objects such as black holes, neutron stars, white dwarfs, very faint stars, or non-luminous objects like planets. The search for these consists of using gravitational lensing to see the effect of these objects on background galaxies. Most experts believe that the constraints from those searches rule out MACHOs as a viable dark matter candidate.
Finally, WIMPs or Dark matter which is composed of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles. There are no currently known particles that have its properties, but many extensions of the standard model of particle physics predict such particles. The search for WIMPs involves attempts at direct detection by highly sensitive detectors, as well as attempts at production by particle accelerators. WIMPs are generally regarded as the most promising dark matter candidates. The DAMA/NaI experiment and its successor DAMA/LIBRA have claimed to directly detect dark matter particles passing through the Earth, but many scientists remain skeptical, as null results from similar experiments seem incompatible with the DAMA results.
However, Einstein suggested another possibility in the speech "Aether and the theory of Relativity" he made on May 5th 1920 at the University of Leyden Germany where he indicated The General Theory of Relativity predicts that "space is endowed with physical qualities"
"Recapitulating, we may say that according to the General Theory of Relativity space is endowed with physical qualities; in this sense, therefore, there exists Aether. According to the General Theory of Relativity space without Aether is unthinkable; for in such space there not only would be no propagation of light, but also no possibility of existence for standards of space and time, nor therefore any space-time intervals in the physical sense. But this Aether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable media, as consisting of parts, which may be tracked through time. The idea of motion may not be applied to it."
However, Einstein only endowed space with the field properties of a space-time dimension and not the physical qualities of mass. Therefore, if one accepts the validity of his theory the physical properties he was referring to must be a result of those field properties not those of mass in its particle form. This suggests a portion of the missing mass found by Fritz Zwicky may be related to those field properties is not what most associate with the mass of objects or particles.
Yet it is difficult to form a clear picture of how a field consisting of space-time can have the physical properties of Dark Matter because as was shown in the article "Defining what time is" Sept. 20, 2007 time is not perceived by most as matter but as an irreversible physical, chemical, and biological change in physical space. Therefore, it is hard to understand how the physical properties Einstein associated with space can interact with the non-physical properties of a time or a space-time dimension to create mass.
But Einstein gave us the ability to solve this and develop more direct understand how and why the field properties of space-time can be responsible for Dark Matter when he used the equation E=mc^2 and the constant velocity of light to define the geometric properties of mass in a space-time universe. This is because that provided a method of converting a unit of time he associated with energy in a space-time dimension to unit of space associated with mass in four *spatial* dimensions. Additionally because the velocity of light is constant he also defined a one to one quantitative correspondence between his space-time universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.
The fact that one can use Einstein’s equations to qualitatively and quantitatively redefine the field properties of a space-time environment in terms of four *spatial* dimensions means as was done in the article “Defining energy?” Nov 27, 2007 that one can also define the gravitational properties mass in terms of a spatial displacement in field properties of four *spatial* dimension.
Therefore, according to Einstein if the continuous field properties of a three-dimensional space manifold were displacement with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension a gravitational field would be created which because it is not made up of particles would not interact with light and therefore be Dark.
In other words, a portion of the gravitational forces associated with Dark Matter may not be the mass associated with particles but with the physical qualities Einstein in his speech "Aether and the theory of Relativity" tells us that a displacement of space must have
However, this contradicts the current worldview shared by most physicists and cosmologists that gravitational forces can only be created by mass in its particle or quantized form. This is true even though observations tell a different story.
For example Louis de Broglie was the first to predict mass is made up of the continuous field properties of space when he theorized that all particles have a wave component because according to modern theories that is the only thing that can support continuous properties of a wave.
Additionally the electron diffraction by crystals in 1927 by Davisson and Germer provides experimental confirmation of this because that one can observe the transfer of momentum from a particles wave component to the electron caused by that interaction.
In other words, the mass we associate with particles must be composed of the oscillation in the field properties of space because that is the only thing that could be responsible for their wave components. Therefore, those fields must also have the properties associated with mass.
If this is true why then do we only observe its particle properties?
One can understand why by extrapolating the laws of governing resonance in a three-dimensional environment, as was done in the article “Why is energy/mass quantized?” Oct. 4, 2007 to the field properties of the wave Davisson and Germer observed particle to be composed of to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
Briefly, it showed the four conditions required for resonance to occur in a classical environment, an object, or substance with a natural frequency, a forcing function at the same frequency as the natural frequency, the lack of a damping frequency and the ability for the substance to oscillate spatial would occur in one consisting of four spatial dimensions.
The existence of four *spatial* dimensions would give the continuous field properties of space or as was shown above mass the ability to oscillate on a "surface" between a third and fourth *spatial* dimensions thereby fulfilling one of the requirements for classical resonance to occur.
These oscillations would be caused by an event such as the decay of a subatomic particle or the shifting of an electron in an atomic orbital. This would force the "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold to oscillate spatially with the frequency associated with the energy of that event.
The oscillations caused by such an event would serve as forcing function allowing a resonant system or "structure" to be established space.
Therefore, these oscillations in a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold would meet the requirements mentioned above for the formation of a resonant system or "structure" in four-dimensional space if one extrapolated them to that environment.
Classical mechanics tells us the energy of a resonant system can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with its fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency.
Hence, these resonant systems in the field properties of space would be responsible the mass and therefore the gravitational potential of particles.
However, there are at least two reasons why we are unable to directly observe the field properties of the mass component of space. The first is because all observations require an exchange of energy between what is being observed and the observer. Yet the most effective way for nature to transfer information to our instruments is, as was shown in the article “Why is energy/mass quantized?“ in a resonate system made up of the field properties of mass. Therefore, in all measurements the particle properties associated with its resonant system will always be predominant over its field ones.
This is why as mentioned earlier its field properties are only observable in terms of the interference of the wave properties particles as was demonstrated by the discovery of electron diffraction by crystals in 1927 by Davisson and Germer.
The second and probably the most significant is that to measure a quantity there must be a physical difference between what is being measured and what is doing the measuring.
For example, one cannot measure the force on the walls of ship lock created by the changing level of water from a ship in it by measuring how high it is above its surface because it is changing at the same rate.
As was mentioned earlier Einstein tells us a displacement in the continuous "surface" or field properties of a three-dimensional space manifold which are displaced with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension would result in the creation of a gravitation field.
However, as it was with a ship one cannot measure the gravitational force on the "walls" of our universe generated by the mass associated with a displacement in a "surface" of three-dimensional space manifold because we and all our instruments are floating on that "surface".
Yet as mentioned earlier we can determine the mass component of space by measuring how the inertial properties of its field components interact with crystals in experiments such as those conducted by Davisson and Germer
It should be remember Einstein’s genius allows us to choose to define all environments in either space-time or one consisting of four *spatial* dimension when he defined their geometry in terms of the constant velocity of light. This interchangeability broadens the environment encompassed by his theories by making them applicable to both the quantum and field properties of space thereby giving us a new perspective on physical make up of dark matter
Copy right Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2016
Vol. 3 — 2012
In 1928 Paul Dirac developed through complex mathematical calculations a theory that integrated quantum mechanics, used to describe the subatomic world, with Einstein’s Special Relativity, which says nothing travels faster than light.
However, he soon realized his equations not only worked for an electron with negative charge. It also worked for a particle that behaves like an electron with positive charge.
In other words, they predicted something entirely new to science – antiparticles.
In 1932, Carl Anderson a professor at California Tech experimental confirmed their existence when he observed cosmic rays in a cloud chamber leaving a track which could have only been created by something with a positively charged, and with the same mass as an electron."
However, even though the environment containing antimatter is defined only in terms of the abstract prosperities of mathematics its existence can tell us a great deal about the physical geometry of our universe.
For example, Einstein’s theories make very specific predictions based on the existence of a single space-time environment that if found not to occur would invalidate it.
For example, his theory tells us that light should bend as it passes by a massive object.
If this was not observed his theory would have to be discarded.
However, 1919 Arthur Eddington lead an expedition to photograph the total eclipse of the Sun. The photographs revealed stars whose light had passed near sun had been bent exactly as Einstein had predicted. The experiment was repeated in 1922 with another eclipse with the same confirmation.
Additionally in past century, since he proposed his theory there has not been any observations of our macroscopic universe that disagree with any of its predictions.
Even so this does not mean that we should assume that our universe is physically made up of four dimensional space-time because, as with all multidimensional theories when Einstein derived the geometric properties of a space-time universe in terms of the constant velocity of light he also define another one with identical properties in terms of four *spatial* dimensions.
In other words, by defining the geometric properties of space-time in terms of the constant velocity of light he provided a qualitative and quantitative means of redefining its time related properties in terms of only four *spatial* dimensions.
As was mentioned earlier the fact that light bends as it passes by massive objects does not mean our universe is made up of four dimensional space-time because the symmetry of equations used to make that prediction also predicts one made up of only four *spatial* dimensions will do the same.
Therefore, the fact that light bends as it passes by a mass cannot be used to eliminate that possibility.
However, there is an experiment very similar to the one Arthur Eddington preformed that would resolve this ambiguity.
Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity tells us that objects that create gravitational field cause time to "move" slower. However, due to the symmetry of his equations one could also say that time slowing down results in the formation of a gravitational field. Therefore, one must assume that a gravitational field must always be attractive because observations indicate that the passage of time can only be slowed not accelerated.
However, the fact that one can use Einstein’s equations to qualitatively and quantitatively redefine the energy he associated with gravity in terms of four *spatial* dimensions means as was done in the article “Defining energy?” Nov 27, 2007 that it can be derived in terms of a spatial displacement in a "surface" of a three-dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension as well as one in a space-time dimension.
However, unlike time, which is observed to only move in one direction forward observations tell us that we can move in spatially in two directions up down or backwards and forwards.
Therefore, if and only if the universe was made up of four *spatial* dimensions could there exist a form of mass that posses a negative gravitational potential.
One candidate for such a mass is antimatter. We know from observations that in it has an electrical charge that is oppositely directed from its matter counterpart. Therefore, it is possible that it has a gravitational field that is oppositely directed from that of ordinary matter.
An experiment has been proposed that could determine if this is indeed true.
As describe in the New Scientist article "Antimatter mysteries 3: Does antimatter fall up?" Apr 29, 2009, it involves using uncharged particles to prevent electromagnetic forces from drowning out gravitational effects. It will first build highly unstable pairings of electrons and positrons, known as positronium, then excite them with lasers to prevent them annihilating too quickly. Clouds of antiprotons will rip these pairs apart, stealing their positrons to create neutral antihydrogen atoms.
Pulses of these anti-atoms shot horizontally through two grids of slits will create a fine pattern of impact and shadow on a detector screen. By measuring how the position of this pattern is displaced, the strength – and direction – of the gravitational force on antimatter can be measured.
In other words, there is an experiment that could determine if our universe is physically composed of four dimensional space-time or four *spatial* dimensions because as was mentioned earlier a universe physically composed of four dimensional space-time cannot support a negative gravitational potential while one made up of four *spatial* dimensions can.
Yet if found to be true it does not mean that Einstein’s theories are invalid because his theories and predictions were based on pure mathematics and as mentioned earlier a universe consisting of four dimensional space-time and four *spatial* dimensional are mathematically are equivalent in every respect.
However, it would require us to rethink our understanding of the physical geometry of our universe and the causality of gravitational forces.
Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2016
of the Fourth
Vol. 4 — 2013