The Higgs Boson which was tentatively confirmed to exist on 14 March 2013 appears to confirm the existence of the Higgs field. Its discovery is pivotal to the Standard Model and other theories within particle physics because it explains, in terms of an asymmetry created by it why some fundamental particles have mass when the symmetries controlling their interactions should require them to be massless. Many feel this discovery will allow physicists to finally validate the last untested area of the Standard Model’s approach to fundamental particles and forces, guide other theories and discoveries in particle physics, and potentially lead to developments in New Physics.

However it may also provide a way of integrating gravity into the Standard Model because it would allow one to physically connect its particle concept of mass associated with the Higgs field to the field properties Einstein associated with gravity.
This is true because even though Einstein was only able tell us how mass interacts with the field properties of spacetime not what it was.
As Steven Weinberg said "Mass tells spacetime how to curve while spacetime tells mass how to move".
In other words Einstein was only able to explain how the field properties of space interact to create gravity while the Standard Model defines how the asymmetry of those fields gives particles their mass.
However this suggests that one may be able to integrate Einstein’s concept of gravity into the Standard Model if one can define a common physical mechanism responsible for how particles break the symmetry of space to create mass while at the same time explaining how and why the field properties of his spacetime universe interact to create the force of gravity.
Einstein gave us a method for accomplishing this when he said "If a new theory (such as that associated with the Higgs boson) was not based on a physical image simple enough for a child to understand, it was probably worthless."
For example Newton was troubled by the fact that that his gravitational theory meant ." that inanimate brute matter should, without the mediation of something else which is not material, operate upon and affect other matter without mutual contact…That gravity should be innate, inherent, and essential to matter, so that one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum, without the mediation of anything else, by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity that I believe no man who has in philosophical matters a competent faculty of thinking can ever fall into it."
However Einstein realized that one can understand how gravity "may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum" by extrapolating the physical image of how objects move on a curve surface in a threedimensional environment to a curved four dimensional spacetime manifold. This allowed him to conceptually understand gravity in terms of a physical image based on our threedimension environment.
In other words the mathematics developed by Newton was only able to quantitatively predict gravitational forces while Einstein gave us the ability to conceptually understand why "one body may act upon another at a distance" by physically connecting it to the reality of what we can see and touch.
However, as mentioned earlier he was unable to tell us what mass is, he was only able tell us how mass interacts with spacetime.
Similarly the Standard Model is able to define mass in terms of the symmetry breaking properties of the Higgs field however it is unable to define in terms of a physical image of how it interacts with the field properties of spacetime to create gravity or the forces associated with mass.
This fact is difficult to understand because the Standard model is based on a Relativistic Quantum Field Theory which has its foundation in Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity. Therefore one would think that it would be easy to integrate it into his General Theory of Relativity.
However Einstein’s and modern scientist’s inability to connect the Standard Models explanation for mass to Einstein’s explanation of gravity can be traced to the fact that they chose to define the universe in terms of energy instead of mass.
Einstein told us that a curvature in spacetime is responsible for gravitational energy and because of the equivalence between energy and mass defined by his equation E=mc^2 one must also assume that it is responsible for mass.
This suggest that one may be able to incorporate Einstein’s explanation of the gravity into the Standard Model if one converts or transposes the his spacetime universe which defines field properties of energy in terms of geometry of spacetime to one that defines mass of in terms of its field properties.
Einstein gave us the ability to do this when he used the constant velocity of light and the equation E=mc^2 to define the dynamic balance between mass and energy because that provided a method of converting the spacetime displacement he associated with energy in a spacetime universe to one we believe he would have associated with mass in a universe consisting of only four *spatial* dimensions. Additionally because the velocity of light is constant he also allows us to defined a one to one quantitative and qualitative correspondence between his spacetime universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.
In other words by defining the geometric properties of a spacetime universe in terms of mass/energy and the constant velocity of light he provided a qualitative and quantitative means of redefining his spacetime universe in terms of the geometry of four *spatial* dimensions.
The fact that the equation E=mc^2 allows us to both qualitatively and quantitatively derive the spatial properties of energy in a spacetime universe in terms of four *spatial* dimensions is the bases for assuming as was done in the article “Defining energy” Nov 27, 2007 that all forms of energy/mass, including that associated with the Higgs field can be derived in terms of a spatial displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
However changing ones perspective on the geometric structure of the universe form one of spacetime to four *spatial* dimensions, as was just shown to be possible gives one the ability to define the physical mechanism by which the Higgs Field or the field properties of four *spatial* dimensions interacts with particles to create mass and why they are quantized in terms of a physical image formed in our threedimensional environment.
For example one can form a physical image of why mass is quantized, as was done in the article "Why is energy/mass quantized?" Oct. 4, 2007" by extrapolating the image of a wave and its resonant properties in three dimension environment to one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.
This would be analogous to how Einstein, as mentioned earlier was able to explain gravity by extrapolating the physical image of how objects move on a curved surface of threedimension space to one consisting of four dimensional spacetime.
(Louis de Broglie was the first to predict the existence of the wave properties of mass when he theorized that all particles have a wave component. His theories were confirmed by the discovery of electron diffraction by crystals in 1927 by Davisson and Germer).
Briefly that article showed the four conditions required for resonance to occur in a classical environment, an object, or substance with a natural frequency, a forcing function at the same frequency as the natural frequency, the lack of a damping frequency and the ability for the substance to oscillate spatial would be meet in one consisting of four.
The existence of four *spatial* dimensions would give a matter wave that Louis de Broglie associated with a particle the ability to oscillate spatially on a "surface" between a third and fourth *spatial* dimensions thereby fulfilling one of the requirements for resonance to occur.
These oscillations would be caused by an event such as the decay of a subatomic particle or the shifting of an electron in an atomic orbital. This would force the "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold to oscillate with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension at a frequency associated with the energy of that event.
However, the oscillations caused by such an event would serve as forcing function allowing a resonant system or "structure" to be established in four *spatial* dimensions.
Classical mechanics and physical observations of our three dimensional environment tell us that resonant systems can only take on the discrete or quantized energies associated with a fundamental or a harmonic of their fundamental frequency
Therefore, these resonant systems in a four *spatial* dimensions would define mass and its quantum mechanical properties because of the fact that the volumes of space containing them would have a higher concentration of energy and therefore the mass associated with those volumes would be greater.
However can also understand in terms of a "physical image" of the boundaries of the point particles of the Standard Model using the above concepts.
In classical physics, a point on the twodimensional surface of paper is confined to that surface. However, that surface can oscillate up or down with respect to threedimensional space.
Similarly an object occupying a volume of threedimensional space would be confined to it however, it could, similar to the surface of the paper oscillate "up" or "down" with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
The confinement of the "upward" and "downward" oscillations of a threedimension volume with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension is what defines the geometric boundaries of the "box" containing the resonant system the article "Why is energy/mass quantized?" associated with a particle.
(The reasons why particles can be treated as a mathematical points in the Standard Model is because according to the above theoretical model the components of their energy/mass and forces associated with them would be evenly distributed around a point located at it center.)
This suggest the symmetry breaking properties the standard model associate with the Higgs field may be related to the geometric properties of four *spatial* dimensions.
If true one should be able to use those field concepts to explain how it interacts with particles to give them mass and why the mass of the corresponding particle types across the three fundamental families of particles in the Standard Model listed in the table below grows larger in each successive family.
Family 1  Family 2  Family 3  
Particle  Mass  Particle  Mass  Particle  Mass 
Electron  .00054  Muon  .11  Tau  1.9 
Electron Neutrino 
< 10^8  Muon Neutrino 
< .0003  Tau Neutrino 
< .033 
Up Quark  .0047  Charm Quark  1.6  Top Quark  189 
Down Quark  .0074  Strange Quark  .16  Bottom Quark  5.2 
As mentioned earlier the article "Why is energy/mass quantized?” showed that one can derive the mass of a particle in terms of the energy contained within a resonant system generated by a matter wave on a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension while the article “Defining energy" showed that one can derive the energy or temperature of an environment in terms a displacement in the same threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
Therefore using the concepts developed in those articles one could derive the total mass of a particle in terms of the sum of the energies associated with that resonant structure and the displacement in the "surface" of threedimensional space associated with the energy of the environment it is occupying.
Yet Classical Mechanics tells us there will be specific points in space where the matter wave that Louis de Broglie associated with a particle can interact with the energy content or temperature of its environment to form a resonant system.
Therefore, the mass of each family member would not only be dependent on the energy associated with the resonant system that defined their quantum mechanical properties in the article "Why is energy/mass quantized?” but also on temperature or energy of the environment they are occupying.
Thus suggest the reason “The corresponding particle types across the three families in the Standard Model have identical properties except for their mass, which grows larger in each successive family." is because of an interaction between the resonant properties defined in the article "Why is energy/mass quantized?” and the mass content of the environment they are occupying.
This means the particles in the first family would be found in relativity low energy environments, are relatively stable, and for the most part can be observed in nature. However, the particles in the second and third families would be for the most part unstable and can be observed only in highenergy environments of particle accelerators. The exception is the Muon in the second family, which is only observed in the highenergy environment of cosmic radiation.
The relative masses of the fundamental particles increases in each successive family because the higherenergy environments where they occupy would result in the corresponding particles in each successive family to be formed with a greater relative "separation" in the “surfaces” of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
Therefore, the corresponding particles in the second family will have a greater mass than the particles in the first family because the "separation", with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension of the threedimensional space manifold associated with them is greater than the "separation" associated with the first family.
Similarly, the corresponding particles in the third family will have a greater mass than those in the second family because the "separation", with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension, of the threedimensional space manifold associated with them is greater than the spatial "separation" associated with the second family.
Additionally the corresponding particle types across the three families have "identical properties" because as shown in the article "The geometry of quarks" Mar. 15, 2009 they are related to the orientation of the "W" axis of the fourth *spatial* dimension with the axis of threedimensional space. Therefore, each corresponding particle across the three families will have similar properties because the orientation of the "W" axis of the fourth *spatial* dimension with respect to the axis of threedimensional space is the same for the corresponding particles in all of the families.
This explains why "The corresponding particle types across the three families having identical properties except for their mass, which grows larger in each successive family” in terms of the asymmetrical field of four *spatial* dimensions.
However it also shows how one can use the asymmetrical field properties of four *spatial* dimensions or the Higgs Field to understand the causality of the masses of the fundamental particles in the Standard model in terms of a physical image based on the "reality" of what we can see and touch in our three dimensional environment. This is similar to how Einstein, as mentioned earlier was able to shown that a mass "may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum" by extrapolating the physical image of how objects move on a curve surface in a threedimensional environment to a curved four dimensional spacetime manifold.
As mentioned earlier the article "Why is energy/mass quantized?” showed that one can derive the total mass of all particles in terms of the sum of energy contained within a resonant system generated by a matter wave on a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension and the energy associated with displacement in the "surface" of threedimensional space associated the environment it is occupying.
However if one assumes, as was done above the Higgs field is created by a spatial displacement in the "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension one can also understand how its asymmetric properties interacts with particles to create their mass in terms of the physical image formed by water in a dam.
This is because the potential energy of water molecule in a dam is defined by its asymmetrical spatial separation with respect to the bottom of the dam.
Similarly, according to the above theoretical model, the potential energy or mass contained in particles would be defined by an asymmetrical displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
In other words it gives one the ability to define the asymmetrical properties the Standard Model associates with the Higgs field in terms of a physical image of water in a dam because as mentioned earlier the potential energy of water in a dam is solely dependent on the height of the dam while that of a particle would be dependent on magnitude of the spatial separation or the "height" of the threedimension space manifold it is occupying with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
However, as was mentioned earlier Einstein also defined gravity in terms of an asymmetrical displacement or curvature or a "surface" of a three dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension or a spacetime manifold.
This suggest that one may be able to unite Einstein’s concept of gravity with the Standard Model if one can find a way of integrating the effects an asymmetrical curvature in "surface" of a threedimensional manifold with respect to either spacetime or a higher or fourth *spatial* dimension would have on a particle with the asymmetrical properties of the Higgs field.
It should be remember that Einstein’s genius allows us to choose whether to view the reality of the Higgs Field in either a spacetime environment or one consisting of four *spatial* dimension when he defined the geometry of spacetime in terms of energy/mass and the constant velocity of light.
Later Jeff
Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2014
Anthology of


The Imagineer’s

The Reality 
The Imagineer’s 

Recently there have been many observations that are extremely difficult to integrate into the currently accepted theoretical models.
Particularly the force called Dark Energy has eluded any attempt make it a part of the "The Standard Model of Particle Physics" one of the most successful theories ever created.
However what makes this even more troubling is that the Standard model is based on two other very successful theories, that of Einstein Theory of Relativity and Quantum Field Theory.
Therefore if, despite continued efforts to developed a theoretical understanding of Dark Energy in terms of these theories we still cannot succeed, should we assume that, due to how interconnected these theories are we must discard them and look in a new direction.
Not necessarily because we may be able to understand its causality in terms of our current theories if instead of trying to make Dark Energy conform to them we allow its observed properties to guide us to a more complete understanding their validly.
Most scientists would agree that the best way of determining how one should interpret a theoretical model would be to list all observations regarding the forces in its domain and try to define them in terms of the rules it lays out.

For example observations of the expansive force called Dark Energy tell us that threedimensional space is expanding towards a higher spatial dimension not a time or spacetime dimension.
Therefore, to explain the observed spatial expansion of the universe one would have to assume the existence of a another *spatial* or fourth *spatial* dimension in addition to the threespatial dimensions and one time dimension that Einstein’s theories contain to account for that observation.
This would be true if Einstein had not given us a means of qualitatively and quantitatively converting the geometric properties of his spacetime universe to one consisting of only four *spatial* dimensions.
He did this when he used the constant velocity of light and the equation E=mc^2 to define the dynamic balance between mass and energy responsible for geometric properties of spacetime because it provided a method of converting the spacetime displacement he associated with energy in a spacetime universe to a spatial one in a universe consisting of only four *spatial* dimensions. Additionally because the velocity of light is constant he also defined a one to one quantitative correspondence between his spacetime universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.
In other words by defining the geometric properties of a spacetime universe in terms of mass/energy and the constant velocity of light he provided a qualitative and quantitative means of redefining it in terms of the geometry of four *spatial* dimensions.
The fact that the equation E=mc^2 allows us to both qualitatively and quantitatively derive the spatial properties of energy in a spacetime universe in terms of four *spatial* dimensions is the bases for assuming as was done in the article “Defining energy” Nov 27, 2007 that all forms of energy, including that associated with the Higgs field can be derived in terms of a spatial displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
As mentioned earlier it is difficult to integrate the causality of how threedimensional space can be expanding towards a higher *spatial" dimension into Einstein spacetime universe because it does not define a higher spatial dimension.
However it is easy if one redefines Einstein’s spacetime universe, as was done above in terms of four *spatial* dimensions because a higher or fourth *spatial* dimension would be an integral part of its theoretical structure.
Yet it also allows one use Einstein theories and the laws of thermodynamics to understand how and why the expansive force called Dark Energy is causing the spatial expansion of our universe because it gives one the ability to qualitatively and quantitatively define energy in terms of a spatial displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimensions instead of one in a spacetime environment.
We know from the study of thermodynamics that energy flows from areas of high to one of low density very similar to how water flows form an elevated or "high density" point to a lower one.
For example, if the walls of an above ground pool filled with water collapse the water molecules on the elevated twodimensional surface of the water will flow or expand and accelerate outward towards the threedimensional environment surrounding it while the force associated with that expansion decreases as it expands.
Yet we know from observations of the cosmic background radiation that presently our threedimensional universe has an average energy component equal to about 3.7 degrees Kelvin.
However according to concepts developed in the article “Defining energy" (mentioned earlier) the threedimensional "surface" of our universe which has an average energy component of 3.7 degree Kelvin would be elevated with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
Yet this means similar to the water molecules occupying the elevated two dimensional surface of the water in the pool, the particles occupying a region of threedimensional space that is elevated because of its 3.7 degree temperature will flow and accelerate outward in the four dimensional environment surrounding it.
This shows how reformulating Einstein’s theories in terms of four *spatial* dimensions allows one to use the laws of thermodynamics to explain what the force called Dark Energy is and why it is causing the accelerated expansion of the universe in terms of the Einstein’s theories.
Many feel that because space is everywhere, the force called Dark Energy is everywhere so therefore its effects will increase as space expands. In contrast, gravity’s force is stronger when things are close together and weaker when they are far apart. Therefore they feel the rate at which the universe expands will increase as time go by resulting in galaxies, stars, the solar system, planets, and even molecules and atoms could be shredded by the everfaster expansion. In other words the universe that was born in a violent expansion could end with an even more violent expansion called the Big Rip.
However if the above theoretical model is correct than the magnitude of Dark Energy relative to gravitational energy will not continue to increase as the universe expands but will decrease because, similar to the water in a collapsed pool the accelerative forces associated with it will decline as it expands and yet because the quantity of energy/mass of the universe remains constant through its history its gravitational potential will also.
Therefore in the future the gravitational contractive forces associated with it will exceed the expansive forces associated with Dark Energy because, as mentioned earlier according to this theoretical model its accelerative forces should decrease as the universe expands. This would be true even though its components may be separated by extremely large distances because, as just mentioned if the above theoretical scenario is correct the force associated with dark energy will decease relative to gravity as time goes by.
Recent observations also suggest that early in the universe evolution the gravitational forces exceeded the expansive forces of Dark Energy.
The reason is according the above theoretical model, just after the big bang when the concentration of energy and mass was high, the gravitational forces of the universe’s energy/mass would predominate over Dark Energy because the distance between both its energy and mass components was relatively small.
However as the universe expands its gravitational attractive forces will decrease more rapidly than the expansive force associated with Dark Energy because they are related to the square of the distance between them while those of the expansive forces of Dark Energy are more closely related to a linear function of the total energy of content of the universe.
Therefore after a given period of time the expansive forces associated with Dark Energy will become predominate and the expansion of the universe will accelerate.
However as the universe expands and cools that force will decrease because as mentioned earlier similar to the twodimensional surface of the water in a collapsed pool, the forces associated with that expansion will decrease as it expands.
This means that eventually gravitational forces will win because, as mentioned earlier the laws of thermodynamics tells us the total accelerative forces associated with Dark Energy will decease and therefore will eventually approach zero, while the total mass content and the gravitational attractive forces associated with it will remain constant as the universe expands even though they may be separated by a greater distant.
Therefore. gravity will eventually win the battle with dark Energy because as was just mentioned the forces associated with it approach zero as the expansion progress while those of gravity remain constant.
There can be no other conclusion if one accepts the validity of Einstein’s theories and the laws of thermodynamics because the theoretical arguments presented are a base solely on their validity.
This shows how one can fully integrate the observed properties of Dark Energy into Einstein General Theory of Relativity while at the same time demonstrating the advantages of allowing observations guide our understanding of our theoretical model instead of forcing them to be subservient to our preconceive theoretical ideas.
However this may also allow gravity to be integrated into the Standard Model if one can reformulate its spacetime equations to their equivalent in four *spatial* dimensions as was shown above to be possible.
It should be remember that Einstein’s genius allows us to choose whether to view Dark Energy and the mathematical equations in the Standard Model in either a spacetime environment or one consisting of four *spatial* dimension when he defined the geometry of spacetime in terms of energy/mass and the constant velocity of light.
Later Jeff
Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2014
Anthology of

The Imagineer’s 

The Imagineer’s

The Reality 
The Imagineer’s 
