The Big Bang theory suggests that matter and antimatter should have been produced in equal quantities. Since collisions between matter and antimatter result in their mutual annihilation there should not be any ordinary matter, and its antimatter equivalent left in the universe. However, it is obvious this did not happen because no galaxies or intergalactic clouds of antimatter have yet been detected that have the ability to offset the observed quantity of matter in the universe. Therefore, it looks as if matter won out over antimatter.
One reason given for this is that soon after the big bang, a slight asymmetry developed between matter and antimatter.
However no one has be able to give define a physical mechanism that could be responsible for this even though physicists suspect it may be due to a chargeparity (CP) violation which would have allowed normal matter to prevail over antimatter.

Yet Einstein’s may have given us a clue as to what could cause this violation when he defined the quantity of mass in a given volume of spacetime in terms of a displacement or curvature in it.
However it is easier to understand why if one reformulates his spacetime theories in terms of four *spatial* dimensions.
(The reasons will become obvious later.) Einstein give us the ability to do this when he defined the geometric properties of mass in a spacetime when he used the equation E=mc^2 to derive the balance between it and energy because by using the constant velocity of light he provided a method of converting a unit of time he associated with energy to a unit of mass we believe he would have associated with space. Additionally because the velocity of light is constant he also defined a one to one quantitative correspondence between his spacetime universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.The fact that one can use Einstein’s equations to qualitatively and quantitatively redefine the curvature in spacetime he associated with energy in terms of four *spatial* dimensions is one bases for assuming, as was done in the article “Defining energy?” Nov 27, 2007 that all forms of energy including that associated with matter and antimatter can be derived in terms of a spatial displacement in a “surface” of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
This as mentioned earlier this gives one the ability to understand the mechanism responsible for the asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the early universe because it provides a "central line" in threedimensional space which can be used to compare the properties of matter and antimatter on different sides of it with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
In other words it allows one define the asymmetry between the energy/mass in a matter / antimatter system as being the result of a different property of oppositely directed displacements in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension because one can define the energy/mass associated with the matter component of a particle in terms of downward directed curvature in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension while defining those of an antiparticle in terms of a upwardly directed curvature with respect a "central line" in threedimensional space.
As was mentioned earlier the article “Defining energy?” Nov 27, 2007, one can derive the quantity of energy/mass in a system in terms of the magnitude of a displacement in a "surface" of a three dimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension. Therefore, the total energy of a particle / antiparticle system would be equal to the sum of their relative displacements.
This means one can define particle antiparticle annihilation in terms of the "upward" directed curvature in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold associated with an antiparticle "filling in" the equal but oppositely directed "downward" curvature associated with a particle while defining the energy released when they do so in terms of the sum of their oppositely directed curvatures.
However, this also provides an explanation of the why there is more matter than antimatter in there universe
As was mentioned earlier, one can derive the energy/mass of a particle in terms of a "downward" directed displacement in that "surface" with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension while the energy/mass of an antiparticle in terms of an "upward" directed one in that same surface.
But this indicates on average it would require less energy to form a particle than an antiparticle for the same reason that it takes less energy to fill a bucket with water by pushing it down below the waters surface than it does by lifting the water into a bucket that is above its surface because the one above the surface is at a higher gravitational potential’
Therefore, there would be some energy left over if an equal number of particles and antiparticles were annihilated. This left over energy is responsible of energy/mass of particles presently in the universe.
Additionally it defines in terms of a physical mechanism why there may be a chargeparity (CP) violation in matter and antimatter formation because it shows that even though the charges associated with matter and anti matter particles are equal and opposite their combined energy is not.
However, the reason this left over energy/mass takes the form of a particle and not an antiparticle is because the relative properties of energy/mass means it can be defined in terms of a reference frame that would result in it being called particle instead of an antiparticle.
This defines the mechanism in terms of the geometry of four dimensional spacetime or four *spatial* dimensions for the asymmetry between particles and antiparticles and why there should be more particles than antiparticles left over after the big bang even though they were produced in equal numbers.
It should be remember that Einstein’s genius allows us to choose whether to describe the properties of mass in either a spacetime environment or one consisting of four *spatial* dimension when he defined the geometry of spacetime in terms of the constant velocity of light.
Later Jeff
Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2015
Time holds a unique place in science and the human consciousness. However, defining its origins or describing what it is extremely difficult. Some define it only in the abstract saying that is an invention of the human consciousness that gives us a sense of order, a before and after so to speak. However many physicists define it in terms of the physical properties of a spacetime dimension.
Yet, the observable properties of time are something that most of us can agree upon.
One of the most persistent is that it is perceived only as a measure of the before and after of an irreversible physical, chemical, and biological change in space. In other words it does not appear to have the physical properties of most associate with matter or space.
However many physicists define changes most associated with time in terms of the physical properties of a spacetime dimension even though as was just mentioned it is not observe to have any.
Yet this presents a problem because if time is only a nonphysical measure of change in an environment as observations indicate how can it interact with the physical properties of space to create the force of gravity and the changes it causes.
In others words how can we integrate the physical properties associated with change in the spatial environments with the nonphysical properties of time as was done in the General Theory Relativity.
Einstein gave us a clue when he defined the curvature in a spacetime environment responsible for gravity in terms of the equation E=mc^2 and the constant velocity of light because that provided a method of defining the changes he associated with gravity in terms of a curvature or displacement in four *spatial* dimensions as well as one in four dimensional spacetime
In other words by defining the changes associated with gravity in terms of E=mc^2 and the constant velocity of light he provided a qualitative and quantitative means of deriving the origin of those changes in terms of the physicality of four *spatial* dimensions.
The fact that one can use Einstein’s equations to qualitatively and quantitatively redefine the curvature or displacement in spacetime he associated with gravitational energy in terms of four *spatial* dimensions is one bases for assuming as was done in the article “Defining energy?” Nov 27, 2007 that the energy associated with it can also can be defined in terms of a spatial displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
However defining gravity in terms of its spatial instead of it time properties as was done above provides the physicists with a new perspective on many of the mechanism responsible for the changes most of us associate with time.
For example Einstein believed that change does not exist in the spacetime environment as is shown by the following statement he made in his 1952 book Relativity
"Since there exists in this four dimensional structure [spacetime] no longer any sections which represent "now" objectively, the concepts of happening and becoming are indeed not completely suspended, but yet complicated. It appears therefore more natural to think of physical reality as a four dimensional existence, instead of, as hitherto, the evolution of a three dimensional existence."
In other words according to Einstein the structure of spacetime is ridge while the changes we perceive are merely an illusion similar to the illusion of change created in a flip book when one rapidly flips through its pages containing series of pictures that vary gradually from one page to the next.
However if one considered blocks of spacetime as the pages of the flip book responsible for the illusion of changes as Einstein did one still must define what is gradually changing on each page of that book.
We know form observations that all physical change that occur involve the transfer of energy from one point in threedimensional space to another.
Therefore if time is a static or unevolving parameter of the spacetime environment defined by Einstein we must assume that there must be another property other than time in the universe’s geometry that evolves to account for why changes occur.
As was shown earlier in the article “Defining energy?” Nov 27, 2007 we can use Einstein’s theory to define the energy responsible for change in terms of a physical displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
This suggests that the gradual changes that must occur in the "flip book" of spacetime as one moves through it are spatial displacements of threedimensional space with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
In other words one can use Einstein’s theories to define the origin of change in terms of the physicality of the spatial dimensions by redefining his spacetime concepts in terms of their spatial properties.
Additionally if Einstein’s belief that spacetime is ridge unchanging environment one must assume that the time or what we measure as the before and after event has it origin in the physicality of the spatial dimensions.
Later Jeff
Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2015