Time holds a unique place in science and the human consciousness. However, defining its origins or describing what it is extremely difficult. Some define it only in the abstract saying that is an invention of the human consciousness that gives us a sense of order, a before and after so to speak. However many physicists define it in terms of the physical properties of a spacetime dimension.
Yet, the observable properties of time are something that most of us can agree upon.
One of the most persistent is that it is perceived only as a measure of the before and after of an irreversible physical, chemical, and biological change in space. In other words it does not appear to have the physical properties of most associate with matter or space.
However many physicists define changes most associated with time in terms of the physical properties of a spacetime dimension even though as was just mentioned it is not observe to have any.
Yet this presents a problem because if time is only a nonphysical measure of change in an environment as observations indicate how can it interact with the physical properties of space to create the force of gravity and the changes it causes.
In others words how can we integrate the physical properties associated with change in the spatial environments with the nonphysical properties of time as was done in the General Theory Relativity.
Einstein gave us a clue when he defined the curvature in a spacetime environment responsible for gravity in terms of the equation E=mc^2 and the constant velocity of light because that provided a method of defining the changes he associated with gravity in terms of a curvature or displacement in four *spatial* dimensions as well as one in four dimensional spacetime
In other words by defining the changes associated with gravity in terms of E=mc^2 and the constant velocity of light he provided a qualitative and quantitative means of deriving the origin of those changes in terms of the physicality of four *spatial* dimensions.
The fact that one can use Einstein’s equations to qualitatively and quantitatively redefine the curvature or displacement in spacetime he associated with gravitational energy in terms of four *spatial* dimensions is one bases for assuming as was done in the article “Defining energy?” Nov 27, 2007 that the energy associated with it can also can be defined in terms of a spatial displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
However defining gravity in terms of its spatial instead of it time properties as was done above provides the physicists with a new perspective on many of the mechanism responsible for the changes most of us associate with time.
For example Einstein believed that change does not exist in the spacetime environment as is shown by the following statement he made in his 1952 book Relativity
"Since there exists in this four dimensional structure [spacetime] no longer any sections which represent "now" objectively, the concepts of happening and becoming are indeed not completely suspended, but yet complicated. It appears therefore more natural to think of physical reality as a four dimensional existence, instead of, as hitherto, the evolution of a three dimensional existence."
In other words according to Einstein the structure of spacetime is ridge while the changes we perceive are merely an illusion similar to the illusion of change created in a flip book when one rapidly flips through its pages containing series of pictures that vary gradually from one page to the next.
However if one considered blocks of spacetime as the pages of the flip book responsible for the illusion of changes as Einstein did one still must define what is gradually changing on each page of that book.
We know form observations that all physical change that occur involve the transfer of energy from one point in threedimensional space to another.
Therefore if time is a static or unevolving parameter of the spacetime environment defined by Einstein we must assume that there must be another property other than time in the universe’s geometry that evolves to account for why changes occur.
As was shown earlier in the article “Defining energy?” Nov 27, 2007 we can use Einstein’s theory to define the energy responsible for change in terms of a physical displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
This suggests that the gradual changes that must occur in the "flip book" of spacetime as one moves through it are spatial displacements of threedimensional space with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
In other words one can use Einstein’s theories to define the origin of change in terms of the physicality of the spatial dimensions by redefining his spacetime concepts in terms of their spatial properties.
Additionally if Einstein’s belief that spacetime is ridge unchanging environment one must assume that the time or what we measure as the before and after event has it origin in the physicality of the spatial dimensions.
Later Jeff
Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2015
Einstein was often quoted as saying "If a new theory was not based on a physical image simple enough for a child to understand, it was probably worthless."
For example in his General Theory of Relativity he derived gravity in terms of a curvature in the geometry of space and time.
Additionally he showed us one can understand why in terms of the physical image of a marble on a curved surface of a rubber diaphragm. The marble follows a circular pattern around the deformity in the surface of the diaphragm. Similarly planets revolve around the sun because they follow a curved path in the deformed "surface" of spacetime.
In other words he was able to integrate the physicality of gravity into our consciousness in terms of a physical image based on the reality of a marble moving on a curved surface.
However he was unable to do the same for electrical forces even though he felt, as documented by the American Institute of Physics "that electromagnetism and gravity could both be explained as aspects of some broader mathematical structure".

“From before 1920 until his death in 1955, Einstein struggled to find laws of physics far more general than any known before. In his theory of relativity, the force of gravity had become an expression of the geometry of space and time. The other forces in nature, above all the force of electromagnetism, had not been described in such terms. But it seemed likely to Einstein that electromagnetism and gravity could both be explained as aspects of some broader mathematical structure. The quest for such an explanation — for a “unified field” theory that would unite electromagnetism and gravity, space and time, all together — occupied more of Einstein’s years than any other activity.
One reason may be because electrical force appears to be more closely related to the spatial not the time properties of our universe because they can be both attractive and repulsive whereas gravity is unidirectional attractive force.
In other words because time is only observed to move in one direction forward, it is difficult to incorporate the bidirectional component of electrical forces in terms of a physical image based on the geometry of spacetime. However it is much easer if one defines them in terms of the geometry four *spatial* dimensions because one can more two directions, backwards of forwards in a spatial dimension.
Einstein gave us the ability to do this when he used the velocity of light and the equation E=mc^2 to define geometric properties of spacetime because it allows one to convert a unit of time in his four dimensional spacetime universe to a unit of space in a one consisting of only four *spatial* dimensions. Additionally because the velocity of light is constant it is possible to defined a one to one correspondence between his spacetime universe and one made up of four *spatial* dimensions.
In other words by mathematically defining the geometric properties of time in his spacetime universe in terms of the constant velocity of light he provided a qualitative and quantitative means of redefining it in terms of the geometry of four *spatial* dimensions thereby giving one the ability to define the bidirectional components of electrical forces in terms of the multi directional properties of the spatial dimensions.
The fact that one can use Einstein’s equations to qualitatively and quantitatively redefine the curvature in spacetime he associated with gravity in terms of four *spatial* dimensions is one bases for assuming, as was done in the article “Defining energy?” Nov 27, 2007 that all forms of energy including gravitational and electromagnetism can be derived in terms of a spatial displacement in a “surface” of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
This would have allowed him to form a physical image of electrical force as was done in the article "What is electromagnetism?" Sept, 27 2007 in terms of the differential force caused by the "peaks" and "toughs" of a matter wave moving on a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
Briefly it showed it is possible to derive the electrical properties of electromagnetism by extrapolating the laws of Classical Wave Mechanics in a threedimensional environment to a matter wave moving on a "surface" of threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
A wave on the twodimensional surface of water causes a point on that surface to be become displaced or rise above or below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present. A force will be developed by the differential displacement of the surfaces, which will result in the elevated and depressed portions of the water moving towards or become "attracted" to each other and the surface of the water.
Similarly a matter wave on the "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension would cause a point on that "surface" to become displaced or rise above and below the equilibrium point that existed before the wave was present.
Therefore, classical wave mechanics, if extrapolated to four *spatial* dimensions tells us a force will be developed by the differential displacements caused by a matter wave moving on a "surface" of threedimensional space with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension that will result in its elevated and depressed portions moving towards or become "attracted" to each other.
This defines the causality of the attractive forces of unlike charges associated with the electromagnetic wave component of a photon in terms of a force developed by a differential displacement of a point on a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
However, it also provides a classical mechanism for understanding why similar charges repel each other because observations of water show that there is a direct relationship between the magnitudes of a displacement in its surface to the magnitude of the force resisting that displacement.
Similarly the magnitude of a displacement in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension caused by two similar charges will be greater than that caused by a single one. Therefore, similar charges will repel each other because the magnitude of the force resisting the displacement will be greater for two charges than it would be for a single charge.
One can define the causality of electrical component of electromagnetic radiation in terms of the energy associated with its "peaks" and "troughs" that is directed perpendicular to its velocity vector while its magnetic component would be associated with the horizontal force developed by that perpendicular displacement.
However, Classical Mechanics tells us a horizontal force will be developed by that perpendicular or vertical displacement which will always be 90 degrees out of phase with it. This force is called magnetism.
This is analogous to how the vertical force pushing up of on mountain also generates a horizontal force, which pulls matter horizontally towards the apex of that displacement.
This shows how one can define a physician image for the causality electrical forces in terms by extrapolating the laws of classical mechanics in a threedimensional environment to consisting of four dimensional space time or four *spatial* dimensions.
However viewing electromagnetism in terms of its spatial instead of its time properties allows one to understand its quantum mechanic properties in of a physical image based on the observable properties of waves in three dimensional space.
However it also allows one to integrate the quantum mechanical properties of electromagnetism into the continuous field properties General Relativity
For example the article “Why is energy/mass quantized?” Oct. 4, 2007 showed one can physical derive the quantized wave properties of electromagnetism by extrapolating the field properties of classical wave mechanics in a threedimensional environment to a matter wave on a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
Briefly it showed the four conditions required for resonance to occur in a classical environment, an object, or substance with a natural frequency, a forcing function at the same frequency as the natural frequency, the lack of a damping frequency and the ability for the substance to oscillate spatial would occur in one consisting of four spatial dimensions.
The existence of four *spatial* dimensions would give a matter wave the ability to oscillate spatially on a "surface" between a third and fourth *spatial* dimensions thereby fulfilling one of the requirements for classical resonance to occur.
These oscillations would be caused by an event such as the decay of a subatomic particle or the shifting of an electron in an atomic orbital. This would force the "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold to oscillate with the frequency associated with the energy of that event.
The oscillations caused by such an event would serve as forcing function allowing a resonant system or "structure" to be established space.
Therefore, these oscillations in a "surface" of a threedimensional space manifold would meet the requirements mentioned above for the formation of a resonant system or "structure" in fourdimensional space if one extrapolated them to that environment.
Classical mechanics tells us the energy of a resonant system can only take on the discrete or quantized values associated with it fundamental or a harmonic of its fundamental frequency.
Hence, these resonant systems in four *spatial* dimensions would be responsible for the discrete quantized energy associated with the quantum mechanical properties of a photon or electromagnetic field.
Yet one can also define its boundary conditions in terms of the classical laws space and time.
For example in classical physics, a point on the twodimensional surface of paper is confined to that surface. However, that surface can oscillate up or down with respect to threedimensional space.
Similarly an object occupying a volume of threedimensional space would be confined to it however, it could, similar to the surface of the paper oscillate “up” or “down” with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension.
The confinement of the “upward” and “downward” oscillations of the field properties of mass with respect to a fourth *spatial* dimension is what defines the spatial boundaries associated with a particle in the article “Why is energy/mass quantized?“
In other words one can form a physical image of why electromagnetic energy is quantized in terms of the same wave properties that was earlier was associated with its attractive and repulsive properties.
As mentioned earlier Einstein felt "that electromagnetism and gravity could both be explained as aspects of some broader mathematical structure".
The above discussion vindicates that belief because it shows that one can not only incorporate gravity and the continuous wave properties of electromagnetism but also its quantum properties into a broader mathematical structure by rewriting the spacetime field concepts of General Theory of Relativity in terms of four *spatial* dimensions
It should be remember that Einstein’s genius allows us to choose whether to create physical images of an unseen "reality" in either a spacetime environment or one consisting of four *spatial* dimension when he defined the geometry of spacetime in terms of the constant velocity of light.
Later Jeff
Copyright Jeffrey O’Callaghan 2015